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Paramagnetic Species Produced by γ Irradiation of Organic Compounds
1.Weber, Forsyth, and Schuler, Radiation Research 3, 68 (1955).
2.L. Dorfman, (Symposium on Radiation Chemistry of Hydrocarbons, 132nd Meeting of American Chemical Society, New York, September, 1957), finds part of is eliminated from or by nonradical processes. (A complete list of pertinent papers would be quite extensive.)
3.Gordy, Ard, and Shields, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 41, 983 (1955).
4.Gordy, Ard, and Shields, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 41, 996 (1955).
5.C. F. Luck and W. Gordy, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3240 (1956).
6.W. Gordy and C. G. McCormick, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3243 (1956).
7.Blomgren, Hart, and Markheim, Rev. Sci. Instr. 24, 298 (1953). Chamber of Fig. 3 combined with turret containing 2700 curie source.
8.Delbecq, Smaller, and Yuster, Phys. Rev. 104, 599 (1956).
9.B. Smaller and E. Yasaitis, Rev. Sci. Instr. 24, 991 (1953).
10.J. S. Waugh, J. Chem. Phys. 26, 966 (1957).
11.(a) D. P. Stevenson and D. O. Schissler, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1353 (1955).
11.(b) D. O. Schissler and D. P. Stevenson, J. Chem. Phys. 24, 926 (1956)., J. Chem. Phys.
11.(c) F. W. Lampe, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 1055 (1957).
12.Meisels, Hamill, and Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 790 (1956).
13.In reference 6 Gordy and McCormick found a 5‐line pattern in irradiated at 77 ° K with 40 kv x‐rays.
14.Livingston, Zeldes, and Taylor, Discussions Faraday Soc. 19, 166 (1955).
15.W. Gordy, “Electron Spin Resonance in the Study of Radiation Damage,” Gatlinburg Symposium on Information Theory in Biology, October 29–31, 1956, p. 21 (to be published by Pergamon Press).
16.L. Gevantman and R. R. Williams [J. Phys. Chem. 56, 569 (1952)] find more isopropyl radical than n‐propyl but more methyl than either. However, our lower temperature and condensed phase could tend to simplify processes.
17.(a) C. E. McCauley and R. H. Schuler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4008 (1957).
17.(b) The results of Keenan, Lincoln, Rogers, and Burwasser [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 5125 (1957)] in liquid butane ( to ) also indicate more sec‐butyl than n‐butyl radicals.
18.For example in liquid n‐hexane H. A. Dewhurst (private communication) finds dimer and products indicating fragmentation. However, irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature produced essentially only dimer.
19.H. A. Dewhurst [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1254 (1956)] interprets results as showing preferential rupture of C‐H bonds with maintenance of ring system when liquid cyclohexane is irradiated.
20.M. Magat and R. Viallard [J. Chim. Phys. 48, 385 (1951)] find that in the mass spectrometer for normal paraffins C‐C rupture is less likely at the ends and that a maximum occurs for bond rupture.
21.M. R. Pulver (Eastman Organic Chemicals Department), private communication.
22.Methyl group branches increase the yield in hydrocarbons. E. Collinson and A. J. Swallow, Chem. Revs. 56, 471 (1956).
23.In reference 17(b) isobutane irrad. at to gives more fragmentation than the n‐butane and more than
24.W. E. Moffitt and C. A. Coulson [Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 81 (1948)] have calculated that for the radicals of type the free valence is fairly evenly distributed on odd indexed carbons with none on even carbons.
24.Lefkovits, Fain, and Matsen [J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1690 (1955)] calculate nearly the same energy with structures (a) and (b) as with a more complete treatment.
25.Gibson, Ingram, Symons, and Townsend [Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 914 (1957)] find that OH radicals abstract H atoms selectively from isopropanol.
26.W. R. McDonell and S. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 208 (1955).
27.Skraba, Burr, and Hess, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1296 (1953).
28.W. R. McDonell and A. S. Newton, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 4651, (1954).
29.J. G. Burr, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 751 (1957).
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