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Paramagnetic Resonance of Mn2+ in Glasses and Compounds of the Lithium Borate System
1.For numerous references, c.f., W. A. Weyl, Coloured Glasses (Society of Glass Technology, Sheffied, England, 1959).
2.S. H. Linwood and W. A. Weyl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 443 (1942).
3.K. Bingham and S. Parke, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 224 (1965).
4.R. H. Sands, Phys. Rev. 99, 1222 (1955).
5.T. Castner, G. S. Newell, W. C. Holton, and C. P. Slichter, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 668 (1960).
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7.M. Peter, Phys. Rev. 113, 801 (1959);
7.A. L. Bil’dyukevich et al., Zh. Eksperim. i Teor. Fiz. 39, 1548 (1960).
7.[English transl.: A. L. Bil’dyukevich et al., Soviet Phys.‐JETP 12, 1078 (1961)];
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7.E. S. Kirkpatrick, K. A. Muller, and R. S. Rubins, Phys. Rev. 135, A86 (1964); , Phys. Rev.
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7.F. Holuj, Can. J. Phys. 43, 726 (1965);
7.F. Holuj, J. R. Thyer, and N. E. Hedgecock, Can. J. Phys. 44, 509 (1966)., Can. J. Phys.
8.J. S. Griffith, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 23 (1956).
9.H. H. Wickman, M. P. Klein, and D. A. Shirley, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2113 (1965).
10.R. W. Kedzie, D. H. Lyons, and M. Kestigian, Phys. Rev. 138, A918 (1965).
11.R. F. Tucker, Advances in Glass Technology (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, 1962), pp. 103–114.
12.L. D. Bogomolova, V. N. Lazukin, and I. V. Chepeleva, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 168, 59 (1966)
12.[English transl.: L. D. Bogomolova, V. N. Lazukin, and I. V. Chepeleva, Soviet Physics‐Doklady 11, 402 (1966)].
13.H. W. de Wijn and R. F. van Balderen, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1381 (1967).
14.An initial account of the present work has already been given: See D. L. Griscom, P. J. Bray, and R. E. Griscom, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 11, 719 (1966).
15.J. Krogh‐Moe, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 101 (1962);
15.J. Krogh‐Moe, 6, 46 (1965)., Phys. Chem. Glasses
16.See, for example, B. S. R. Sastry and F. A. Hummel, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 41, 7 (1958);
16.S. Lee, Ph.D. thesis, Brown University, 1963
17.The reference sample consisted of a small speck of heavily reactor‐irradiated LiF, containing colloidal lithium. The spectrum appears as a sharp spike, in width, centered on c.f., R. Kaplan and P. J. Bray, Phys. Rev. 129, 1919 (1963).
18.See, for example, Ref. 1, pp. 121–131.
19.J. S. Griffith, Phys. Rev. 132, 316 (1963).
20.Although the spin Hamiltonian proposed by CNHS is evidently the correct one for the case of trivalent iron in glasses, Kedzie, Lyons, and Kestigian (KLK) have pointed out that even in the absence of an term, isotropic g values of 3.3 or 4.3 can result if certain special interrelationships hold between the second‐order and fourth‐order crystal‐field terms. (c.f., Ref. 10.) Thus, there was no a priori, reason for believing that the theory of CNHS would provide the only possible explanation of the manganese spectra (if it should indeed provide any explanation at all). However, careful attempts to fit the spectrum with the KLK Hamiltonian were completely unsuccessful.
21.The program, generously provided by Dr. H. M. Gladney of IBM, is described in IBM Technical Bulletin RJ 318, (1964).
22.J. D. Swalen and H. M. Gladney, IBM J. Res. Develop. 8, 515 (1964).
23.H. G. Andresen, Phys. Rev. 120, 1606 (1960).
24.The subject of ESR powder patterns has been well developed in the literature, starting with the work of Sands (Ref. 4). In the usual nomenclature, “divergences” are mathematical infinities that occur in the theoretical powder pattern as calculated in the delta‐function approximation. “Shoulders” are finite steps, or absorption edges, in the same theoretical pattern. The field positions of both types of features generally correlate well with bumps or peaks in the experimental (first derivative) spectrum. A comprehensive list of ESR powder pattern references can be found in Ref. 22 of this paper.
25.It has been pointed out previously [G. Burns, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2048 (1961)]
25.that the fine‐structure spin Hamiltonian in ESR has the same functional form as the quadrupolar Hamiltonian used in NMR. Thus, by replacing by D and η by well‐known NMR perturbation formulas can be adapted for ESR use. A basic reference for NMR powder pattern calculations is: M. H. Cohen and F. Reif, Solid State Physics (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957), Vol. 2, p. 1.
25.Some specific calculations involving nonzero asymmetry parameter are found in: G. H. Stauss, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1988 (1964);
25.and K. Narita, J. Umeda, and H. Kusumoto, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 2719 (1966)., J. Chem. Phys.
26.J. S. Van Wieringen, Discussions Faraday Soc. 19, 118 (1955).
27.See for example Ref. 5, especially Footnote 8.
28.Other possible sources of the rhombic crystal‐field terms observed in glasses have been proposed and discussed at length in the literature: c.f., Refs. 5, 10–12 and J. S. Griffith, Mol. Phys. 8, 213 (1964). However, the hypothesis of distorted tetrahedral (or octahedral) sites considered in the present paper appears the most suitable to explain the spectrum of
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