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Concentration dependent solute redistribution at the ice–water phase boundary. III. Spontaneous convection. Chloride solutions
1.G. W. Gross, Ch. McKee, and C.‐h. Wu, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3080 (1975);
1.G. W. Gross, C.‐h. Wu, L. Bryant, and C. McKee, ibid., 3085.
2.Precision pionometer measurements made by S.‐C. Way in our laboratory.
3.E. J. Workman and S. E. Reynolds, Phys. Rev. 78, 254 (1950);
3.A. W. Cobb and G. W. Gross, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 796 (1969);
3.G. W. Gross, in Water Structure at the Water‐Polymer Interface edited by H. H. G. Jellinek (Plenum, New York, 1972), p. 106.
4.G. W. Gross, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2291 (1965).
5.B. Gross, Phys. Rev. 94, 1545 (1954).
6.V. LeFebre, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 25, 263 (1967).
7.G. W. Gross, Adv. Chem. Ser. 73, 37 (1968).
8.G. W. Gross, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 25, 270 (1967);
8.R. G. Seidensticker and R. F. Sekerka, Investigation of Desalination by Freezing. Final Report (Office of Saline Water Contract No. 14‐01‐0001‐1336, Westinghouse Research Laboratories, Pittsburgh, PA, 1969), p. 70.
9.A. Steinemann and H. Gränicher, Helv. Phys. Acta 30, 553 (1957);
9.C. Jaccard, Helv. Phys. Acta 32, 89 (1959);
9.H. Gränicher, Phys. Cond. Matter 1, 1 (1963);
9.J. H. Bilgram and H. Gränicher, Phys. Cond. Matter 18, 275 (1974);
9.and P. V. Hobbs, Physics of Ice (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974), Chap. 2.
10.Briefly, these defects are: (1) two types of orientational defects, hydrogen bonds without a proton (L defects) and doubly occupied bonds (D defects); (2) two types of ionic defects, and For details see Ref. 9, book by P. V. Hobbs, Chap. 2.3.2.
11.G. W. Gross, I. Cox Hayslip, and R. N. Hoy, J. Glaciol (in press).
12.A. von Hippel, J. Chem. Phys. 54, 145 (1971).
13.R. G. Seidensticker, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2853 (1972).
14.J. H. Bilgram, Phys. Cond. Matter 18, 263 (1974).
15.P. L. Bryant, M.S. thesis New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, 1973,
15.and Pui Mun Wong, M.S. thesis New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, 1975. We have attempted the direct measurement of alkali cation concentrations in ice by atomic absorption spectrography. The results indicate that cation concentrations are much lower than the chloride.
16.We owe this method to a suggestion by Professor Albert Petschek.
17.The statistical F test (one‐way analysis of variance) was used to compare the chlorides of different cations as well as different concentrations regardless of cation. The test is described in G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran, Statistical Methods, 6th ed. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IO 1967), Chap. 10.
18.A. W. Cobb and G. W. Gross, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 796 (1969).
19.Arrhenius plots are parallel for a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. The flattening of some curves for very dilute solutions near the high‐temperature end of the plots indicates a transition from extrinsic to intrinsic conduction and should be disregarded for present purpose.
20.G. W. Gross, Science 138, 520 (1962).
21.This conclusion is diametrically opposite to Seidensticker’s in Ref. 13, but it agrees with dielectric results by L. Levi and D. Arias [J. Chim. Phys. 61, 668, (1964)] Fig. 1;
21.and by I. G. Young and R. E. Salomon [J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1635 (1968)].
22.G. W. Gross, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 125, 380 (1965), Article 2.
23.However, von Hippel and co‐workers perceive differences between the dielectric spectra of HF and HCl in ice which they consider significant in terms of the different hydrogen bonding properties of these two solutes. See A. von Hippel, R. Mykolajewycz, A. H. Runck, and W. B. Westphal, Ions and Dipoles in Water and Ice, and Their Transfer Through the Interface (Technical Rep. 14, new series, NIH Grant NIH‐5‐PO1‐HL 14322‐03) (Laboratory for Insulation Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1974).
24.R. W. Gurney, Ionic Processes in Solution (Dover, New York, 1962), p. 54.
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