A physical system which can be forced to execute an arbitrary unitary transformation, and its use to perform arbitrary tests
1.E. Lubkin, J. Math. Phys. 14, xxx (1974), hereafter designated MB. Terminology of MB will be used freely.
2.Ability to produce an arbitrary pure state in would have sufficed to compute the test matrices of the subsequent test. If arbitrary mixed states are nevertheless desired they can instead be obtained by rouletting pure states. Thus the device of constructing and using is not strictly needed for the purpose of establishing the existence of arbitrary tests. The device is adapted from J. von Neumann, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, translated by R. Beyer (Princeton U.P., Princeton, 1955).
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