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Perturbation series for the double cnoidal wave of the Korteweg–de Vries equation

### Abstract

By means of the theorems proved earlier by the author, the problem of the double cnoidal wave of the Korteweg–de Vries equation is reduced to four algebraic equations in four unknowns. Two of the unknowns are the nonlinear phase speeds *c* _{1} and *c* _{2}. Another is a physically irrelevant integration constant. The fourth unknown is the off‐diagonal element of the symmetric, 2×2 theta matrix, which in turn gives the explicit coefficients of the Riemann theta function. The double cnoidal wave *u*(*x*,*t*) is then obtained by taking the second *x*‐derivative of the logarithm of the theta function. Two separate forms of these four nonlinear ‘‘residual’’ equations are given. One is obtained from the Fourier series of the theta function and is useful for small wave amplitude. The other is based on the Gaussian series of the theta function and is highly efficient in the large amplitude regime where the double cnoidal wave is the sum of two solitary waves. Both sets of residual equations can be solved via perturbation theory and results are given to fourth order in the Fourier case and second order in the Gaussian case. The Gaussian‐based perturbation series has the remarkable property that it converges more and more rapidly as the wave amplitude increases; the zeroth‐order solution is the familiar double solitary wave. Numerical comparisons show that the two complementary perturbation series give accurate results in all the important regions of parameter space. (The ‘‘unimportant’’ regions are those in which the double cnoidal wave is an ordinary cnoidal wave subject to a very weak perturbation.) This is turn implies that even for moderate wave amplitude where the nonlinear interactions are not weak, and yet the solitary wave peaks are not well separated, at least to the eye, it is still qualitatively legitimate to describe the double cnoidal wave as either the sum of two sine waves or of two solitary waves of different heights.

© 1984 American Institute of Physics

Received 22 March 1983
Accepted 22 June 1984

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/content/aip/journal/jmp/25/12/10.1063/1.526110

1984-12-01

2016-10-27

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