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Studies in Perturbation Theory. IX. Connection Between Various Approaches in the Recent Development—Evaluation of Upper Bounds to Energy Eigenvalues in Schrödinger's Perturbation Theory

### Abstract

The treatment of Schrödinger's perturbation theory based on the use of a series of inhomogeneous differential equations of iterative character is briefly surveyed. As an illustration, the method is used to derive the general expression for the expectation value of the Hamiltonian to any order which provides an upper bound for the ground‐state energy. It is indicated how the well‐known theory for inhomogeneous equations may be utilized also in this special case.

The solution of the Schrödinger equation by means of the partitioning technique and the concept of reduced resolvents is then treated. It is shown that the expressions obtained are most conveniently interpreted in terms of inhomogeneous differential equations. A study of the connection with the first approach reveals that the two methods are essentially equivalent, but also that the use of reduced resolvents and inverse operators may give an alternative insight in the mathematical structure of perturbation theory, particularly with respect to the ``bracketing theorem'' and the use of power series expansions with a remainder. In conclusion, it is emphasized that the combined use of the two methods provides a simpler and more powerful tool than any one of them taken separately.

© 1965 The American Institute of Physics

Received 14 December 1964
Published online 22 December 2004