^{1,a)}, I. Bogdanou

^{1}, S. K. Mylona

^{1}, M. L. Huber

^{2}, R. A. Perkins

^{2}and V. Vesovic

^{3}

### Abstract

This paper contains new, representative reference equations for the thermal conductivity of n-heptane. The equations are based in part upon a body of experimental data that have been critically assessed for internal consistency and for agreement with theory whenever possible. In the case of the dilute-gas thermal conductivity, a theoretically based correlation was adopted in order to extend the temperature range of the experimental data. Moreover, in the critical region, the experimentally observed enhancement of the thermal conductivity is well represented by theoretically based equations containing just one adjustable parameter. The correlations are applicable for the temperature range from the triple point to 600 K and pressures up to 250 MPa. The overall uncertainty (considered to be estimates of a combined expanded uncertainty with a coverage factor of 2) of the proposed correlation is estimated, for pressures less than 250 MPa and temperatures less than 600 K, to be less than 4%.

The work described in this paper was carried out under the auspices of the International Association for Transport Properties (IATP). The authors gratefully acknowledge the partial financial support of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

1. Introduction

2. Methodology

3. The Correlation

3.1. The dilute-gas limit

3.2. The residual thermal conductivity

3.3. The critical enhancement

3.3.1. Simplified crossover model

3.3.2. Empirical critical enhancement

4. Computer-Program Verification

5. Conclusion

### Key Topics

- Thermal conductivity
- 45.0
- Critical point phenomena
- 9.0
- Heat capacity
- 6.0
- Viscosity
- 4.0
- Boltzmann equations
- 3.0

## Figures

Temperature and pressure ranges of the primary experimental thermal conductivity data for n-heptane.

Temperature and pressure ranges of the primary experimental thermal conductivity data for n-heptane.

Dilute-gas limit thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. Shashkov et al. ^{26} (▲), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{31} (●), Carmichael and Sage ^{39} (◯), Golubev and Naziev ^{43} (◊), Lambert et al. ^{47} (Δ), Eq. (6) (—).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data for dilute-gas limit thermal conductivity of n-heptane from the values calculated by Eqs. (3)–(5) . Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Shashkov et al. ^{26} (▲), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{31} (●), Carmichael and Sage ^{39} (◯), Golubev and Naziev ^{43} (◊), Lambert et al. ^{47} (Δ), Eq. (6) (—).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data for dilute-gas limit thermal conductivity of n-heptane from the values calculated by Eqs. (3)–(5) . Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Shashkov et al. ^{26} (▲), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{31} (●), Carmichael and Sage ^{39} (◯), Golubev and Naziev ^{43} (◊), Lambert et al. ^{47} (Δ), Eq. (6) (—).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of density. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of density. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of temperature. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯), Eq. (12) (—).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of temperature. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯), Eq. (12) (—).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of pressure. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of pressure. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯).

Percentage deviations of secondary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of temperature (period 1969–1997). Lei et al. ^{20} (⬘), Tong and Li ^{21} (◐), Rowley et al. ^{22} (+), Knibbe and Raal ^{23} (◯), Fischer and Ernfried ^{24} (⬓), El-Sharkawy et al. ^{25} (⬖), Shashkov et al. ^{26} (◑), Magerramov ^{27} (), Atalla et al. ^{28} (■), Guseinov and Klimova ^{29} (⏃), Ogiwara et al. ^{30} (⬗), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{31} (✱), Mallan et al. ^{32} (Δ), Naziev et al. ^{33} (●), Kerimov et al. ^{34} (⌖), Bogatov ^{35} (▲).

Percentage deviations of secondary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of temperature (period 1969–1997). Lei et al. ^{20} (⬘), Tong and Li ^{21} (◐), Rowley et al. ^{22} (+), Knibbe and Raal ^{23} (◯), Fischer and Ernfried ^{24} (⬓), El-Sharkawy et al. ^{25} (⬖), Shashkov et al. ^{26} (◑), Magerramov ^{27} (), Atalla et al. ^{28} (■), Guseinov and Klimova ^{29} (⏃), Ogiwara et al. ^{30} (⬗), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{31} (✱), Mallan et al. ^{32} (Δ), Naziev et al. ^{33} (●), Kerimov et al. ^{34} (⌖), Bogatov ^{35} (▲).

Percentage deviations of secondary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of temperature (period 1913–1968). Brykov et al. ^{36} (⬗), Abas-Zade and Guseinov ^{37} (◒), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{38} (⦵), Carmichael and Sage ^{39} (●), Jobst ^{40} (■), Akhmedov ^{41} (⬖), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{42} (□), Golubev and Naziev ^{43} (♦), Vilim ^{44} (◯), Frontasev and Gusakov ^{45} (Δ), Briggs ^{46} (◨), Lambert et al. ^{47} (+), Sakiadis and Coates ^{48} (✱), Filippov ^{49} (◧), Hernqvist ^{50} (▲).

Percentage deviations of secondary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by the present model as a function of temperature (period 1913–1968). Brykov et al. ^{36} (⬗), Abas-Zade and Guseinov ^{37} (◒), Tarzimanov and Mashirov ^{38} (⦵), Carmichael and Sage ^{39} (●), Jobst ^{40} (■), Akhmedov ^{41} (⬖), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{42} (□), Golubev and Naziev ^{43} (♦), Vilim ^{44} (◯), Frontasev and Gusakov ^{45} (Δ), Briggs ^{46} (◨), Lambert et al. ^{47} (+), Sakiadis and Coates ^{48} (✱), Filippov ^{49} (◧), Hernqvist ^{50} (▲).

Thermal conductivity of n-heptane as a function of temperature for different pressures.

Thermal conductivity of n-heptane as a function of temperature for different pressures.

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by Eqs. (1), (6), and (7) and the empirical enhancement of Eq. (13) as a function of temperature. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯), Eq. (12) (—).

Percentage deviations of primary experimental data of n-heptane from the values calculated by Eqs. (1), (6), and (7) and the empirical enhancement of Eq. (13) as a function of temperature. Watanabe and Seong ^{8} (◓), Tanaka et al. ^{9} (■), Assael et al. ^{10} (□), Naziev et al. ^{11} (×), Forsman et al. ^{12} (Δ), Kashiwagi et al. ^{13} (▲), Menashe and Wakeham ^{14} (◊), Nagasaka and Nagashima ^{15} (♦), Naziev et al. ^{16} (+), Nieto de Castro et al. ^{17} (◒), Kandiyoti et al. ^{18} (●), Mukhamedzyanov et al. ^{19} (◯), Eq. (12) (—).

## Tables

Thermal conductivity measurements of n-heptane

Thermal conductivity measurements of n-heptane

Coefficients of Eq. (7) for the residual thermal conductivity of n-heptane

Coefficients of Eq. (7) for the residual thermal conductivity of n-heptane

Evaluation of the n-heptane thermal-conductivity correlation for the primary data

Evaluation of the n-heptane thermal-conductivity correlation for the primary data

Sample points for computer verification of the correlating equations

Sample points for computer verification of the correlating equations

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