Annual and estimated world populations and energy demands (Ref. 24) [in MBDOE (millions of barrels per day of oil equivalent].
World oil productions in the next 10–20 years (Ref. 24).
Volume of oil discovered worldwide (Ref. 25).
Global mean temperature changes over the periods of 1990–2100 and 1990–2030 (Ref. 24).
Link between resources and productivity (Ref. 23).
Comparison of thermal biomass usage options, CHP displacing natural gas as a heat source. 1, large steam power; 2, small steam power; 3, Brayton cycle power; 4, bio-oil conversion power; 5, gasification power; 6, small steam CHP; 7, turboden cycle CHP; 8, entropic cycle CHP.
The life cycle energy balance of corn and switchgrass reveals a paradox: corn as an ethanol feedstock requires less energy for production, i.e., more of the original energy in starch is retained in the ethanol fuel. Nevertheless, the switchgrass process yields higher GHG emissions. This is because most of the process energy for switchgrass process is generated from GHG emission neutral biomass residue. *, 49% actual ethanol energy content, energy content in cattle feed by-product reflects chemical energy content, not life cycle energy displacement. **, energy savings in the refinery due to the higher value of ethanol compared to gasoline.
The variation of distribution factor against particle size for coal undersizes in a classifier. The sizes correspond to midpoint for ranges.
Supply side and demand side management approach for energy.
Exergy-based optimal energy model.
EU criteria pollutant standards in the ambiant air environment (Ref. 23).
Significant EU environmental directives in water, air, and land environments (Ref. 23).
The external environment (Ref. 23).
Global emissions of the top 14 nations by total volume (billions of tons) (Ref. 12).
Classifications of data requirements (Ref. 24).
Classification of key variables defining facility sustainability (Ref. 24).
Energy and sustainable environment (Ref. 24).
Positive impact of durability, adaptability, and energy conservation on economic, social, and environment systems (Ref. 24).
The basket of indicators for sustainable consumption and production (Ref. 24).
Representative sulfur contents of coals (Ref. 13).
Examples of control procedures (Ref. 13).
Particle control techniques (Ref. 25).
Effects of urban density on city’s energy demand (Ref. 25).
Qualities of various energy sources (Ref. 25).
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