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Energy use and environmental impacts: A general review
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10.1063/1.3220701
/content/aip/journal/jrse/1/5/10.1063/1.3220701
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jrse/1/5/10.1063/1.3220701

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Annual and estimated world populations and energy demands (Ref. 24) [in MBDOE (millions of barrels per day of oil equivalent].

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

World oil productions in the next 10–20 years (Ref. 24).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Volume of oil discovered worldwide (Ref. 25).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Global mean temperature changes over the periods of 1990–2100 and 1990–2030 (Ref. 24).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Link between resources and productivity (Ref. 23).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Comparison of thermal biomass usage options, CHP displacing natural gas as a heat source. 1, large steam power; 2, small steam power; 3, Brayton cycle power; 4, bio-oil conversion power; 5, gasification power; 6, small steam CHP; 7, turboden cycle CHP; 8, entropic cycle CHP.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The life cycle energy balance of corn and switchgrass reveals a paradox: corn as an ethanol feedstock requires less energy for production, i.e., more of the original energy in starch is retained in the ethanol fuel. Nevertheless, the switchgrass process yields higher GHG emissions. This is because most of the process energy for switchgrass process is generated from GHG emission neutral biomass residue. *, 49% actual ethanol energy content, energy content in cattle feed by-product reflects chemical energy content, not life cycle energy displacement. **, energy savings in the refinery due to the higher value of ethanol compared to gasoline.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The variation of distribution factor against particle size for coal undersizes in a classifier. The sizes correspond to midpoint for ranges.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Supply side and demand side management approach for energy.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Exergy-based optimal energy model.

Tables

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Table I.

EU criteria pollutant standards in the ambiant air environment (Ref. 23).

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Table II.

Significant EU environmental directives in water, air, and land environments (Ref. 23).

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Table III.

The external environment (Ref. 23).

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Table IV.

Global emissions of the top 14 nations by total volume (billions of tons) (Ref. 12).

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Table V.

Classifications of data requirements (Ref. 24).

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Table VI.

Classification of key variables defining facility sustainability (Ref. 24).

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Table VII.

Energy and sustainable environment (Ref. 24).

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Table VIII.

Positive impact of durability, adaptability, and energy conservation on economic, social, and environment systems (Ref. 24).

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Table IX.

The basket of indicators for sustainable consumption and production (Ref. 24).

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Table X.

Representative sulfur contents of coals (Ref. 13).

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Table XI.

Examples of control procedures (Ref. 13).

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Table XII.

Particle control techniques (Ref. 25).

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Table XIII.

Effects of urban density on city’s energy demand (Ref. 25).

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Table XIV.

Qualities of various energy sources (Ref. 25).

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2009-09-18
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Energy use and environmental impacts: A general review
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jrse/1/5/10.1063/1.3220701
10.1063/1.3220701
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