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Zn/Cu-vegetative batteries, bioelectrical characterizations, and primary cost analyses
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Potato battery basic composition and performance. Potato Zn/Cu galvanic cell battery basic structure. The battery was used to light two white LEDs.

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FIG. 2.

Zn/Cu battery electrical discharge characteristics. (a) Battery characteristic performance during 20 h discharge through a constant external resistance. (b) The effect of cell constant on the performance of an untreated potato battery. (c) Effect of physical disruption of potato tissues on the battery voltage as a function of external resistance between the electrodes. . (d) Effect of physical disruption treatments of potato tuber on the relation between battery output voltage and current density performance . Error bars—one standard deviation, .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Characterization of potato GAII and AC impedance. (a) A typical plot of as a function of external resistance for an untreated potato. (b) GAII of the salt bridge calculated after 3 h of discharge. [(c) and (d)] The real impedance of the potato. They represent two parts of a standard Bode plot of electrical impedance . Error bars—one standard deviation, .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Energy production by a potato battery. (a) Battery power generation per working electrode as a function of the battery voltage. (b) Battery capacity throughout 20 h discharge over constant external resistance . (c) Total energy produced by a potato battery during the 20 h (battery discharge occurred over constant external resistance of . Error bars—one standard deviation .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Cost analyses comparison between various portable battery sources.


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Table I.

Potato content analyses by ion chromatography and atomic emission spectroscopy.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Zn/Cu-vegetative batteries, bioelectrical characterizations, and primary cost analyses