As better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, offshore wind power contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher, thus more and more offshore wind turbines have been and will be deployed. However, the severe offshore conditions make it necessary to develop reliable and cost-effective real-time monitoring system when building offshore wind power farms. This paper proposes an innovative method for designing remote monitoring system for offshore wind turbines based on ZigBee wireless sensor networks. ZigBee networks carrying variety of sensors actively collect dynamic data related to the system operation status, including parameters of the mechanical unit and electrical unit as well as the operation environment. Each wind turbine itself represents a single wireless network, which sends information to remote monitoring center by GPRS module to achieve full wireless communication. To enhance the topologic efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of the networks, an optimized routing algorithm is developed. A physical system based on such method is developed. Analysis and experiment tests with real wind farm data indicate that the developed system works fairly well. The fundamental idea as studied in this work is of great value for building reliable and affordable real-time monitoring systems for wind farms (offshore and on land) with enhanced safety and efficiency.
Received 28 March 2012Accepted 25 October 2012Published online 06 February 2013
This work was supported in part by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No. 2012AA052302, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 609704052, 61134001, and 52105064), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. The constructive comments provided by the two anonymous reviewers and the Editors are also greatly appreciated.
Article outline: I. INTRODUCTION II. CONSTRUCTION OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK A. Signal acquisition of single wind turbine WSN B. WSN remote monitoring system for wind farm III. CONFIGURATION OF SYSTEM A. Hardware configuration of sensor node B. Hardware configuration of data exchange node C. Configuration of systemsoftware IV. ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF ZIGBEE ROUTING STRATEGY A. ZigBee address assignment mechanism B. ZigBee routing protocol 1. Cluster-tree algorithm 2. AODVjr algorithm 3. ZigBee routing (ZBR) strategy C. Link loss and energy saving D. An improved routing algorithm V. EXPERIMENT TEST A. Algorithm simulation B. System level test VI. CONCLUSION