(a) and (b) Cross section SEM images of the sample: glass/AZO(210)/ZnO(100)/CuO(900)/NiO(20). (c) Top surface SEM image from the same sample.
(a) Specular XRD from the sample: glass/AZO(210)/ZnO(100)/CuO(200)/NiO(20)/Au(50). (b) Grazing incidence surface diffraction from the same sample. The indexation of the diffraction peaks is obtained from reference patterns of polycrystalline materials (database: Powder Diffraction File 2 (PDF2) from the International Center of Diffraction Data (ICDD).
1 × 1 μm2 AFM topography images from heterojunctions with x = 400 nm and x = 900 nm absorber thickness.
(a) UV-VIS measurements of the transmittance, T, versus wavelength, λ, for normal light incidence. (b) Extraction of the direct bandgap of AZO, ZnO, and NiO. (c) Extraction of the CuO indirect bandgap (full black dots) and of the direct optical transition gap (full grey dots).
Photoluminescence spectrum measured for a single, 200 nm-thick CuO layer on glass, with an excitation wavelength of 240 nm.
Energy diagram of the investigated solar cell, assuming vacuum level alignment.
Highly rectifying j-V characteristic for the sample: glass/AZO(210)/ZnO(100)/ NiO(20)/Au(400).
(a) Schematic representation of the solar cell design. (b) j-V characteristics in dark and under illumination for solar cells with different CuO thickness.
Transient absorption measurement with the fitting for the extraction of the carrier lifetime in a CuO layer on glass.
List of the sputtering parameters for each material, along with the corresponding deposition rate.
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