1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
f
Cumulative energy, emissions, and water consumption for geothermal electric power production
Rent:
Rent this article for
Access full text Article
/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/10.1063/1.4798315
1.
1.EIA (Energy Information Administration), see http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/ for Annual Energy Outlook 2010, Tables 85 and 101 (accessed August 2010).
2.
2.ISO, ISO International Standard, ISO/FDIS 14040, “Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework,” 1997.
3.
3.ISO, ISO International Standard, ISO 14041, “Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis,” 1998.
4.
4.ISO, ISO International Standard, ISO 14042, “Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Life cycle impact assessment,” 2000.
5.
5. S. Pacca and A. Horvath, “Greenhouse gas emissions from building and operating electric power plants in the upper Colorado River basin,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 31943200 (2002).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0155884
6.
6. P. L. Spath, M. K. Mann, and D. R. Kerr, “Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power production,” Report No. NREL/TP-520-25119, 1999.
7.
7. S. W. White and G. L. Kulcinski, “Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind and DT fusion electrical power plants,” Report No. UWFDM-1063, 1998.
8.
8. D. Fiaschi and D. Lombardi, “Integrated gasifier combined cycle plant with integrated CO2-H2S removal: Performance analysis, life cycle assessment and exergetic life cycle assessment,” International Journal of Applied Thermodynamics 5(1), 1324 (2002).
9.
9. P. J. Meier, “Life cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy,” Report No. UWFDM-1181, 2002.
10.
10. P. L. Spath and M. K. Mann, “Life cycle assessment of a natural gas combined-cycle power generation system,” Report No. NREL/TP-570-27715, 2000.
11.
11.NUREG-1640, “Radiological assessments for clearance of materials from nuclear facilities,” Appendices A through E (2004), Vol. 2.
12.
12. R. H. Bryan and I. T. Dudley, “Estimated quantities of materials in a 1000-Mwe PWR power plant,” Report No. ORNL-TM-4515, 1974.
13.
13. P. F. Peterson, H. Zhao, and R. Petroski, “Metal and concrete inputs for several nuclear power plants,” Report No. UCBTH-05-001, 2005.
14.
14. M. C. Heller, G. A. Keoleian, M. K. Mann, and T. A. Volk, “Life cycle energy and environmental benefits of generating electricity from willow biomass,” Renewable Energy 29, 10231042 (2004).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2003.11.018
15.
15. M. K. Mann and P. L. Spath, see http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/23076.pdf for “Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle system,” NREL Life Cycle Assessment, 1997.
16.
16. B. M. Rule, Z. J. Worth, and C. A. Boyle, “Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 64066413 (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es900125e
17.
17. S. Frick, M. Kaltschmidt, and G. Schroeder, “Life cycle assessment of geothermal binary power plants using enhanced low-temperature reservoirs,” Energy 35(5), 22812294 (2010).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.02.016
18.
18. H. Hondo, “Life cycle greenhouse gas emission analysis of power generating systems: Japanese case,” Energy 30, 20422056 (2005).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.07.020
19.
19. J. M. Mason, V. M. Fthenakis, T. Hansen, and H. C. Kim, “Energy pay-back and life cycle CO2 emissions of the BOS in an optimized 3.5 MW PV installation,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 14, 179190 (2006).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pip.652
20.
20. G. P. M. Phylipsen and E. A. Alsema, “Environmental life cycle assessment of multi-crystalline silicon solar cell modules,” Report No. 95057, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Netherlands, 1995.
21.
21. M. J. de Wild-Schoulten and E. S. Alsema, “Environmental life cycle inventory of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production,” paper presented at the MRS Fall Meeting, Boston, MA, ECN-RX-06-2005, 2005.
22.
22. C. J. Koroneous, S. A. Piperidis, C. A. Tatatzikidis, and D. C. Rovas, “Life cycle assessment of a solar thermal concentrating system,” in Selected Papers from the WSEAS Conferences in Spain, 2008.
23.
23. P. Viebahn, S. Kronshage, F. Trieb, and Y. Lechon, see http://www.needs-project.org/RS1a/RS1a%20D12.2%20Final%20report%20concentrating%20solar%20thermal%20power%20plants.pdf for “Final report on technical data, costs, and life cycle inventories of solar thermal power plant, new energy externalities developments for sustainability,” D 12.2, 2008.
24.
24.Vestas (Vestas Wind Systems A/S), see http://www.vestas.com/ for “Life cycle assessment of electricity delivered from an onshore power plant based on Vestas V82-1.65 MW turbines,” 2006 (accessed August 2010).
25.
25.GREET1_2012, see http://greet.es.anl.gov/greet_1_series for “Greenhouse gases, regulated emissions and energy in transportation (GREET) model” (accessed July 31, 2012).
26.
26.See http://www.aspentech.com/products/aspen-icarus-process-evaluator.aspx for ICARUS Process Evaluator (accessed July 31, 2012).
27.
27.GETEM, see http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/getem.html for “Geothermal electricity technology evaluation model” (accessed August 17, 2012).
28.
28. J. L. Sullivan, C. E. Clark, J. Han, and M. Wang, “Life cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems,” Report No. ANL/ESD 10-5, 2010.
29.
29. J. L. Sullivan, C. E. Clark, L. Yuan, J. Han, and M. Wang, “Life cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems, Part II,” Report No. ANL/ESD 11-12, 2011.
30.
30. C. E. Clark, C. B. Harto, J. L. Sullivan, and M. Q. Wang, “Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants,” Report No. ANL/EVS/R-10/5, 2011.
31.
31. C. E. Clark, C. B. Harto, and W. A. Troppe, “Water resource assessment of geothermal resources and water used in geopressured geothermal systems,” Report No. ANL/EVS/R-11/10, 2011.
32.
32. C. Scheuer, G. A. Keoleian, and P. Reppe, “Life cycle energy and environmental performance of a new university building: Modeling challenges and design implications,” Energy Build. 35, 10491064 (2003).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(03)00066-5
33.
33. R. J. Cole and P. C. Kernan, “Life cycle energy use in office buildings,” Build. Environ. 31, 307317 (1996).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-1323(96)00017-0
34.
34. S. Blanchard and P. Reppe, “Life cycle analysis of a residential home in Michigan,” Center for Sustainable Systems, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Report No. CSS98-05, September 1998.
35.
35. R. J. Cole, “Energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the construction of alternative structural systems,” Building and Environment. 34, 335348 (1998).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(98)00020-1
36.
36.USDOE, “A history of geothermal energy research and development in the United States,” 1976–2006, Vol. 3: Reservoir Engineering, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/geothermal_history_3_engineering.pdf, 2010 (accessed March 16, 2011).
37.
37.See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4798315 for relevant tables and graphs and discussion of material to power ratios. [Supplementary Material]
38.
38. D. Jennejohn, Research and Development in Geothermal Exploration and Drilling (Geothermal Energy Association, Washington, D.C., 2009).
39.
39.GREET2_2012, see http://greet.es.anl.gov/greet_2_series for “Greenhouse gases, regulated emissions and energy in transportation (GREET) model” (last accessed July 31, 2012).
40.
40. K. K. Bloomfield, J. N. Moore, and R. N. Nielsen, “Geothermal energy reduces greenhouse gas emissions,” Climate Change Research, GRC Bulletin, 2003, pp. 7779.
41.
41. R. DiPippo, Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications, Case Studies, and Environmental Impact, 2nd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier, 2008).
42.
42. R. Bertani and I. Thain, see http://www.jeotermaldernegi.org.tr/ian%20i.htm for “Geothermal power generating plant CO2 emission survey,” Rev. 1.0, International Geothermal Association, 2001 (accessed August 2010).
43.
43.CEPA, see http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/reporting/ghg-rep/ghg-rep.htm for Air Resources Board, Reported Emissions, Facility Emissions, 2010 (accessed August 16, 2011).
44.
44.EIA-923, see http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia923/ for EIA-923 Monthly Time Series File, Sources EIA-923 and EIA-860, Department of Energy, The Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2010 (accessed June 25, 2012).
45.
45.GEA, see http://geo-energy.org/plants.aspx for Geothermal Energy Association (accessed April 15, 2012).
46.
46. Y. Lechon, C. de la Rúa, and R. Saez, “Life cycle environmental impacts of electricity production by solar thermal plants in Spain,” Trans. ASME, J. Sol. Energy Eng. 130, 02101210210127 (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2888754
47.
47. E. S. Warner and G. A. Heath, “Life cycle greenhouse gas emission of nuclear electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization,” J. Ind. Ecol. 16(S1), S73S92 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00472.x
48.
48. S. A. Dolan and G. A. Heath, “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of utility scale wind power: Systematic review and harmonization,” J. Ind. Ecol. 16(S1), S136S154 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00464.x
49.
49. D. D. Hsu, P. O'Donoughue, V. Fthenakis, G. A. Heath, H. Chul, C. H. Kim, P. Sawyer, J. Choi, and D. E. Turney, “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of crystalline silicon photovoltaic electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization,” J. Ind. Ecol. 16(S1), S122S135 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00439.x
50.
50. J. J. Burkhardt III, G. Heath, and E. Cohen, “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of trough and tower concentrating solar power electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization,” J. Ind. Ecol. 16(S1), S93S109 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00474.x
51.
51. M. Whitaker, G. A. Heath, P. O'Donoughue, and M. Vorum, “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal-fired electricity production: Systematic review and harmonization,” J. Ind. Ecol. 16(S1), S53S72 (2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00465.x
52.
52.U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Energy-water nexus, improvements to federal water use data would increase understanding of trends in power plant water use,” Report to the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, GAO-10-23, October 2009.
53.
53. J. W. Tester et al., “The future of geothermal energy: Impact of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st century,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006, http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf.
54.
54. S. Adee and S. K. Moore, “In the American Southwest, the energy problem is water,” IEEE Spectrum, June 2010, http://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/environment/in-the-american-southwest-the-energy-problem-is-water.
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/10.1063/1.4798315
Loading
/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/10.1063/1.4798315
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/10.1063/1.4798315
2013-04-05
2015-05-27

Abstract

A life cycle analysis has been conducted on geothermal electricity generation. The technologies covered in the study include flash, binary, enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), and coproduced gas and electricity plants. The life cycle performance metrics quantified in the study include materials, water, and energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The life cycle stages taken into account were the plant and fuel cycle stages, the latter of which includes fuel production and fuel use (operational). The plant cycle includes the construction of the plant, wells, and above ground piping and the production of the materials that comprise those systems. With the exception of geothermal flash plants, GHG emissions from the plant cycle are generally small and the only such emissions from geothermal plants. Some operational GHGs arise from flash plants, and though substantial when compared to other geothermal power plants, these are nonetheless considerably smaller than those emitted from fossil fuel fired plants. For operational geothermal emissions, an emission rate (g/kW h) distribution function vs. cumulative capacity was developed using California plant data. Substantial GHG emissions arise from coproduced facilities and two other “renewable” power plants, but these are almost totally due to the production and use of natural gas and biofuels. Nonetheless, those GHGs are still much less than those from fossil fuel fired plants. Though significant amounts of water are consumed for plant and well construction, especially for well field stimulation of EGS plants, they are small in comparison to estimated water consumed during plant operation. This also applies to air cooled plants, which nominally should consume no water during operation. Considering that geothermal operational water use data are scarce, our estimates show the lowest water consumption for flash and coproduced plants and the highest for EGS, though the latter must be considered provisional due to the absence of field data. The EGS estimate was based on binary plant data.

Loading

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/1.4798315.html;jsessionid=257hh2t0e9c7a.x-aip-live-03?itemId=/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/10.1063/1.4798315&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah&containerItemId=content/aip/journal/jrse
true
true
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address

Oops! This section, does not exist...

Use the links on this page to find existing content.

752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Cumulative energy, emissions, and water consumption for geothermal electric power production
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/2/10.1063/1.4798315
10.1063/1.4798315
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM