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Toward a high Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell efficiency processed by spray pyrolysis method
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10.1063/1.4825253
/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/5/10.1063/1.4825253
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/5/10.1063/1.4825253

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

XRD patterns of the sprayed CZTS films as a function of the substrate temperature (a), the type of carrier gas (b), and GIXRD analysis of the samples deposited onto different substrate.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SEM cross section of the CZTS thin films grown under N (a), air (b), and Ar (c) as carrier gases.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

SEM cross section images of as-deposited sample (a), annealed at 550 °C only in S atmosphere (b), annealed at 550 °C in S + Sn (c), and annealed at 580 °C in S + Sn (d).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Raman scattering with laser excitation wavelength of 514 nm for as-deposited sample. In the inset the Raman spectrum obtained with laser excitation wavelength of 325 nm is shown.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Comparison of the Raman scattering results with laser excitation of 514 nm for the as-grown and annealed without and with KCN treatments.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Evolution of the competing secondary phases (dashed lines) with respect to the main CZTS mode as a function of the [Cu]/([Zn] + [Sn]) ratio, along with the [Zn]/[Sn] ratio dependence (solid line).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Illuminated J-V curves (AM 1.5) and optoelectronic parameters for different solar cells, comparing the effect of the carrier gas used (air and Ar).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Optical absorption coefficient vs. photon energy of CZTS films sprayed at different substrate temperatures, 360 °C and 430 °C; (a) and (b) for as-grown samples, (c) annealed films at 580 °C in S + Sn atmosphere.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

R versus CZTS thickness in the modified TLM method.

Tables

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Table I.

Compositional ratios of the precursor elements and solar cell efficiency reported for different CZTS thin film deposition techniques.

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Table II.

Compositional ratios of the precursor elements for as-deposited, annealed, and annealed and chemically treated samples. The as-deposited samples were deposited from stoichiometry and nonstoichiometry solutions.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Compositional ratios of the precursor elements of as-deposited CZTS samples deposited at three different temperature of substrate, with simultaneous variation of the Cu, Zn, and Sn salt concentrations in the solution. Nominal values: Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.90 and Zn/Sn = 1.24).

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Majority carrier density, electrical resistivity, and mobility obtained from Hall measurements in CZTS samples deposited by spray pyrolysis at different temperature of substrate.

Generic image for table
Table V.

Specific contact resistance for different metal/CZTS contacts, obtained from the modified TLM method.

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/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/5/10.1063/1.4825253
2013-10-11
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Toward a high Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell efficiency processed by spray pyrolysis method
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jrse/5/5/10.1063/1.4825253
10.1063/1.4825253
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