XRD patterns of the sprayed CZTS films as a function of the substrate temperature (a), the type of carrier gas (b), and GIXRD analysis of the samples deposited onto different substrate.
SEM cross section of the CZTS thin films grown under N2 (a), air (b), and Ar (c) as carrier gases.
SEM cross section images of as-deposited sample (a), annealed at 550 °C only in S atmosphere (b), annealed at 550 °C in S + Sn (c), and annealed at 580 °C in S + Sn (d).
Raman scattering with laser excitation wavelength of 514 nm for as-deposited sample. In the inset the Raman spectrum obtained with laser excitation wavelength of 325 nm is shown.
Comparison of the Raman scattering results with laser excitation of 514 nm for the as-grown and annealed without and with KCN treatments.
Evolution of the competing secondary phases (dashed lines) with respect to the main CZTS mode as a function of the [Cu]/([Zn] + [Sn]) ratio, along with the [Zn]/[Sn] ratio dependence (solid line).
Illuminated J-V curves (AM 1.5) and optoelectronic parameters for different solar cells, comparing the effect of the carrier gas used (air and Ar).
Optical absorption coefficient vs. photon energy of CZTS films sprayed at different substrate temperatures, 360 °C and 430 °C; (a) and (b) for as-grown samples, (c) annealed films at 580 °C in S + Sn atmosphere.
RT versus CZTS thickness in the modified TLM method.
Compositional ratios of the precursor elements and solar cell efficiency reported for different CZTS thin film deposition techniques.
Compositional ratios of the precursor elements for as-deposited, annealed, and annealed and chemically treated samples. The as-deposited samples were deposited from stoichiometry and nonstoichiometry solutions.
Compositional ratios of the precursor elements of as-deposited CZTS samples deposited at three different temperature of substrate, with simultaneous variation of the Cu, Zn, and Sn salt concentrations in the solution. Nominal values: Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.90 and Zn/Sn = 1.24).
Majority carrier density, electrical resistivity, and mobility obtained from Hall measurements in CZTS samples deposited by spray pyrolysis at different temperature of substrate.
Specific contact resistance for different metal/CZTS contacts, obtained from the modified TLM method.
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