Auger spectra of the as printed precursor (a) and after burning at 400 °C (b), where evolution of the concentration of C, O, and Mo are shown. Raman spectra of the as-printed, burned-off at 300 °C and 400 °C precursor (c). The Raman spectra were obtained using a 785 nm laser as excitation source.
X-ray diffraction patterns for the as-printed precursor and treated at different reduction temperatures (a). Raman spectra on as printed precursors (black) and reduced at 500 °C (red) using 514 nm laser (b) and 325 nm (c) as excitation wavelength.
FESEM images of reduced oxide nanoparticles printed precursor (left hand) and the corresponding absorbers (right hand) obtained after selenization. The group of images are classified through the cooling-down profile corresponding to slow natural cooling down (a); and slow-fast cooling process with transition temperatures at 300 °C (b), 350 °C (c), and 375 °C (d).
FESEM images for chalcopyrite absorbers obtained using oxide NPs precursors. The images correspond to a study based on the selenization temperature, (a) 525 °C, (b) 550 °C, (c) 575 °C, and (d) 600 °C.
Raman spectra of the absorbers obtained at different temperatures (a). In the inset a detail of the A1 mode is observed. Evolution of the FWHM and Raman shift values with the annealing temperature (b).
Detail of the XRD pattern of the layers selenized at different temperatures.
J-V characteristic of a 2.4% efficiency solar cell (a) and external quantum efficiency of the same cell (b).
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