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Optimal energy management of a micro-grid with renewable energy resources and demand response
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEMS architecture.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Geometric description of two-dimensional ε-constraint. 24

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Geometric description of two-dimensional GAM. 21

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

A typical L.V micro-grid. 6

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Typical daily load profiles for the mentioned MG. 6

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Normalized estimated power outputs from WT and PV. 6

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Real-time market prices from ApX on October 8, 2003. 6

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

PHEVs availability. 26

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Comparison of emission and cost Pareto optimal fronts.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Optimal dispatch of units and grid.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Participation of loads in DR program.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Hourly cost and cumulative cost of power exchange with grid.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Control signal of PHEVs batteries.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Charging and discharging power production of PHEVs batteries.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Technical specifications of energy sources. 6

Generic image for table
Table II.

Bid coefficients of DGs. 6

Generic image for table
Table III.

Gas emission of DG sources and grid. 23

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Comparison of solutions in three methods.


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Scitation: Optimal energy management of a micro-grid with renewable energy resources and demand response