Solar/wind/fuel cell fed standalone power supply.
Equivalent circuit model of PV cell.
Simulink model of PV cell (with varying insolation and temperature).
Power-voltage characteristics of a photovoltaic module at different irradiance levels.
Variation of solar insolation in a typical sunny day at solar centre, KEC.
Voltage, current, and power output of simulated panel.
Flow chart of VSS-INR MPPT technique.
Duty cycle variation with varying step size.
Output of MPPT converter.
Simulink model of wind turbine generator.
Model of wind turbine.
Wind speed data of a typical day at KEC, Erode, TN, India.
Torque output of wind turbine.
Voltage, current and power output of WTG MPPT without controller.
Voltage, current, and power output of WTG with MPPT controller.
Flow chart of MPPT control.
Fuel cell stack.
Lead acid battery model.
Fuzzy based SOC estimator.
Neural network controller for voltage control at PCC.
Structure of the neural network controller developed for voltage control at PCC.
Output voltage of the boost converter at PCC connected to solar panel, fuel cell, and WTG.
(a)–(g) Membership functions of input variables and (h) membership functions of output variable.
Simulink model of FLC based power management controller.
Flowchart of control logic.
Control pulses generated by fuzzy controller (possible combinations of sources to meet the LD).
Comparison of the responses of fuzzy controller with embedded controller in power flow control.
Fuzzy logic controller for battery charger.
Reference and actual charging current of battery charger to sink the excess power at PCC (case-1).
SOC vs terminal voltage at various charging and at floating (“C” is the capacity of battery in ampacity (Ah)).
SOC vs terminal voltage at various currents discharge currents.
Fuzzy rule table.
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