No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Recent advances in the use of metal oxide-based photocathodes for solar fuel production
1.US Department of Energy, Office of science, Basic research needs for solar energy utilization, 2005.
3. S. Marketbuzz, Annual world solar PV market report, San Francisco, CA, 2009.
5. F. F. Abdi, L. Han, A. H. Smets, M. Zeman, B. Dam, and R. van de Krol, “Efficient solar water splitting by enhanced charge separation in a bismuth vanadate-silicon tandem photoelectrode,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2195 (2013).
9. D. Chwieduk, “Solar energy utilization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 12(1), 13–20 (2004).
11. C. Santato, M. Ulmann, and J. Augustynski “Photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten trioxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 936–940 (2001).
12. C. Santaro, M. Odziemkowski, M. Ulmann, and J. Augustynski, “Crystallographically oriented mesoporous WO3 films: Synthesis, characterization, and applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10639–10649 (2001).
13. H. Wang, T. Lindgren, J. He, A. Hagfeldt, and S. E. Lindquist, “Photolelectrochemistry of nanostructured WO3 thin film electrodes for water oxidation: Mechanism of electron transport,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 5686–5696 (2000).
14. F. Amano, D. Li, and B. Ohatani, “Fabrication and photoelectrochemical property of tungsten (VI) oxide films with a flake-wall structure,” Chem. Commun. 46, 2769–2771 (2010).
15. K. Sayama, A. Nomura, A. Zou, R. Abe, Y. Abe, and H. Arakawa, “Photoelectrochemical decomposition of water on nanocrystalline BiVO4 film electrodes under visible light,” Chem. Commun. 2003, 2908.
16. K. Sayama, A. Nomura, T. Arai, T. Sugita, R. Abe, M. Yanagida, T. Oi, Y. Iwasaki, Y. Abe, and H. Sugihara, “Photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into H2 and O2 on porous BiVO4 thin-film electrodes under visible light and significant effect of Ag ion treatment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 11352–11360 (2006).
17. M. Long, W. Cai, and H. Kisch, “Visible light induced photoelectrochemical properties of n-BiVO4 and n-BiVO4/p-Co3O4,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 548–554 (2008).
18. J. Su, L. Guo, S. Yoriya, and C. A. Grimes, “Aqueous growth of pyramidal-shaped BiVO4 nanowire arrays and structural characterization: Application to photoelectrochemical water splitting,” Cryst. Growth Des. 10, 856–861 (2010).
19. A. Iwase and A. Kudo, “Photoelectrochemical water splitting using visible-light-responsive BiVO4 fine particles prepared in an aqueous acetic acid solution,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7536–7542 (2010).
20. Y. H. Ng, A. Iwase, A. Kudo, and R. Amal, “Reducing graphene oxide on a visible-light BiVO4 photocatalyst for an enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2607–2612 (2010).
21. P. Chatchai, Y. Murakami, S. Kishioka, A. Nosaka, and Y. Nosaka, “Efficient photocatalytic activity of water oxidation over WO3/BiVO4 composite under light irradiation,” Electrochem. Acta 54, 1147–1152 (2009).
22. P. Chatchai, S. Kishioka, Y. Murakami, A. Nosaka, and Y. Nosaka, “Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic activity of FTO/WO3/BiVO4 electrode modified with gold nanoparticles for water oxidation under visible light irradiation,” Electrochem. Acta 55, 592–596 (2010).
25. C. Sanchez, M. Hendewerk, K. D. Sieber, and G. A. Somorjai, “Synthesis, bulk, and surface characterization of niobium-doped Fe2O3 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 61, 47–55 (1986).
27. A. Duret and M. Gratzel, “Visible light-induced water oxidation on mesoscopic α-Fe2O3 films made by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17184–17191 (2005).
28. N. K. Allam, B. S. Shaheen, and A. M. Hafez, “Layered tantalum oxynitride nanorod array carpets for efficient photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy: Experimental and DFT insights,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 4609–4615 (2014).
29. A. K. Shwarsctein, Y. S. Hu, A. J. Forman, G. D. Stucky, and E. W. McFarland, “Electrodeposition of α-Fe2O3 doped with Mo or Cr as photoanodes for photocatalytic water splitting,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 15900–15907 (2008).
30. D. K. Zhong and D. R. Gamelin, “Photoelectrochemical water oxidation by cobalt catalyst (“Co–Pi”)/α-Fe2O3 composite photoanodes: Oxygen evolution and resolution of a kinetic bottleneck,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 4202–4207 (2010).
31. J. Brillet, M. Gratzel, and K. Sivula, “Decoupling feature size and functionality in solution-processed, porous hematite electrodes for solar water splitting,” Nano Lett. 10, 4155–4160 (2010).
32. M. Kitano, M. Takeuchi, M. Masaoka, J. M. Thomas, and M. Anpo, “Photocatalytic water splitting using Pt-loaded visible light-responsive TiO2 thin film photocatalysts,” Catal. Today 120, 133–138 (2007).
33. M. Kitano, K. Iyatani, K. Tsujimaru, M. Matsuoka, M. Takeuchi, M. Ueshima, J. M. Thomas, and M. Anpo, “The effect of chemical etching by HF solution on the photocatalytic activity of visible light-responsive TiO2 thin films for solar water splitting,” Top. Catal. 49, 24–31 (2008).
34. R. Abe, T. Takata, H. Sugihara, and K. Domen, “The use of TiCl4 treatment to enhance the photocurrent in a TaON photoelectrode under visible light irradiation,” Chem. Lett. 34, 1162–1163 (2005).
35. R. Nakamura, T. Tanaka, and Y. Nakato, “Oxygen photoevolution on a tantalum oxynitride photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation: How does water photooxidation proceed on a metal-oxynitride surface?,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8920–8927 (2005).
36. C. L. P. Thivet, A. Ishikawa, A. Ziani, L. L. Gendre, M. Yoshida, J. Kubota, F. Tessier, and K. Domen, “Photoelectrochemical properties of crystalline perovskite lanthanum titanium oxynitride films under visible light,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 6156–6162 (2009).
37. R. Abe, M. Higashi, and K. Domen, “Facile fabrication of an efficient oxynitride TaON photoanode for overall water splitting into H2 and O2 under visible light irradiation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11828–11829 (2010).
38. N. Nishimura, B. Raphael, K. Maeda, L. L. Gendre, R. Abe, J. Kubota, and K. Domen, “Effect of TiCl4 treatment on the photoelectrochemical properties of LaTiO2N electrodes for water splitting under visible light,” Thin Solid Films 518, 5855–5859 (2010).
39. D. Yokoyama, H. Hashiguchi, K. Maeda, T. Minegishi, T. Takata, R. Abe, J. Kubota, and K. Domen, “Ta3N5 photoanodes for water splitting prepared by sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 519, 2087–2092 (2011).
40. H. Hashiguchi, K. Maeda, R. Abe, A. Ishikawa, J. Kubota, and K. Domen, “Photoresponse of GaN: ZnO electrode on FTO under visible light irradiation,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 82, 401–407 (2009).
41. M. Marudachalam, R. W. Birkmire, H. Hichri, J. M. Schultz, A. Swartzlander, and M. M. Al-Jassim, “Phases morphology, and diffusion in CuInxGa1−xSe2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2896–2905 (1997).
42. S. F. Valverde, E. O. Regil, R. V. Alvardo, R. R. Noriega, and O. S. Feria, “Mass spectrometry quantification of hydrogen produced under illumination of P-CuInSe2 and modified surfaces,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 22, 581–584 (1997).
44. J. E. Lisch, R. N. Bhattacharya, G. Teeter, and J. A. Turner, “Preparation and characterization of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin films from electrodeposited precursors for hydrogen production,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81, 249–259 (2004).
46. C. C. Hu, J. N. Nian, and H. Teng, “Electrodeposited p-type Cu2O as photocatalyst for H2 evolution from water reduction in the presence of WO3,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92, 1071–1076 (2008).
47. B. S. Shaheen, H. G. Salem, M. A. El-Sayed, and N. K. Allam, “Thermal/Electrochemical growth and characterization of one-dimensional ZnO/TiO2 hybrid nanoelectrodes for solar fuel production,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 18502–18509 (2013).
48. N. K. Allam, N. M. Deyab, and N. Abdel Ghany, “Ternary Ti–Mo–Ni mixed oxide nanotube arrays as photoanode materials for efficient solar hydrogen production,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 12274 (2013).
49. T. Kameyama, T. Osaki, K. Okazaki, T. Shibayama, A. Kudo, S. Kuwabata, and T. Torimoto, “Preparation and photoelectrochemical properties of densely immobilized Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle films,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 5319–5324 (2010).
50. D. Yokoyama, T. Minegishi, K. Maeda, M. Katayama, J. Kubota, A. Yamada, M. Konaga, and D. Domen, “Photoelectrochemical water splitting using a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film,” Electrochem. Commun. 12, 851–853 (2010).
51. R. Nashed, F. M. Alamgir, S. S. Jang, Y. Ismail, M. A. El-Sayed, and N. K. Allam, “Bandgap bowing in Ta-W-O system for efficient solar energy conversion: Insights from density functional theory and x-ray diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 133905 (2013).
52. N. K. Allam and C. A. Grimes, “Formation of vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays in a fluoride-free HCl electrolyte,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13028–13032 (2007).
53. N. K. Allam, K. Shankar, and C. A. Grimes, “Photoelectrochemical and water photoelectrolysis properties of ordered TiO2 nanotubes fabricated by Ti anodization in fluoride-free HCl electrolytes,” J. Mater. Chem. 18, 2341–2348 (2008).
54. N. K. Allam, K. Shankar, and C. A. Grimes, “A general method for the anodic formation of crystalline metal oxide nanotube arrays without the use of thermal annealing,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3942–3946 (2008).
55. N. K. Allam and C. A. Grimes, “Room temperature one-step polyol synthesis of anatase TiO2 nanotube arrays: Photoelectrochemical properties,” Langmuir 25, 7234–7240 (2009).
56. K. Shankar, J. I. Basham, N. K. Allam, O. K. Varghese, G. K. Mor, X. Feng, M. Paulose, J. A. Seabold, K. Choi, and C. A. Grimes, “A review of recent advances in the use of TiO2 nanotube and nanowire arrays for oxidative photoelectrochemistry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 6327–6359 (2009).
57. N. K. Allam and M. A. El-Sayed, “Photoelectrochemical water oxidation characteristics of anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays: Structural and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 12024–12029 (2010).
58. H. A. Hamedani, N. K. Allam, H. Garmestani, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Electrochemical fabrication of strontium-doped TiO2 nanotube array electrodes and investigation of their photoelectrochemical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13480–13486 (2011).
59. R. E. Rettew, N. K. Allam, and F. M. Alamgir, “Interface architecture determined electrocatalytic activity of Pt on vertically oriented TiO2 nanotubes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 147–151 (2011).
60. N. K. Allam, Anodically Fabricated Metal Oxide Nanotube Arrays: A Useful Structure for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion (VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2011).
61. M. Woodhouse and B. A. Parkinson, “Combinatorial approach for the identification and optimization of oxide semiconductors for efficient solar photoelectrolysis,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 197–210 (2009).
62. N. Serpone and A. V. Emeline, “Semiconductor photocatalysis past, present, and future outlook,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 673–677 (2012).
63. K. Rajeshwar, “Conversion and environmental remediation using inorganic semiconductor-liquid interface: The road traveled and the way forward,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1301–1309 (2011).
64. N. S. Lewis and D. G. Nocera, “Powering the planet: Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15729–15735 (2006).
66. J. E. Turner, M. Hendewerk, J. Parmeter, D. Neiman, and G. A. Somorjai, “The characterization of doped iron oxide electrodes for the photodissociation of water stability, optical, and electronic properties,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 1777–1783 (1984).
67. O. Khaselev and J. A. Turner, “Electrochemical stability of p-GaInP2 in aqueous electrolytes toward photoelectrochemical water splitting,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145, 3335–3339 (1998).
70. M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev. 110, 6446–6473 (2010).
71. C. M. McShane and K. S. Choi, “Junction studies on electrochemically fabricated p-n Cu2O homojunction solar cells for efficiency enhancement,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 6112–6118 (2012).
72. U. A. Joshi and P. A. Maggard, “CuNb3O8: A p-type semiconducting metal oxide photoelectrode,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1577–1581 (2012).
74. H. Tang, M. A. Matin, H. Wang, S. Sudhakar, L. Chen, M. M. Al-Jassim, and Y. Yan, “Enhancing the stability of CuO thin film photoelectrodes by Ti alloying,” J. Electron. Mater. 41, 3062–3067 (2012).
75. Y. Mao, J. He, X. Sun, W. Li, X. Lu, J. Gan, Z. Liu, L. Gong, J. Chen, P. Liu, and Y. Tong, “Electrochemical synthesis of hierarchical Cu2O stars with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties,” Electrochim. Acta 62, 1–7 (2012).
76. C. A. N. Fernando, L. L. A. De Silva, R. M. Mehra, and K. Takahashi, “Junction effects of p-Cu2O photocathode with layers of hole transfer sites (Au) and electron transfer sites (NiO) at the electrolyte interface,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 433–439 (2001).
77. Z. Zhang and P. Wang, “Highly stable copper oxide composite as an effective photocathode for water splitting via a facile electrochemical synthesis strategy,” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 2456–2464 (2012).
78. P. Zhang, A. Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Y. S. Hu, J. Lefton, S. Sharma, A. J. Forman, and E. McFarland, “Oriented Ti doped hematite thin film as active photoanodes synthesized by facile APCVD,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 1020–1028 (2011).
79. A. Kay, I. Cesar, and M. Gratzel, “New benchmark for water photooxidation by nanostructured α-Fe2O3 Films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 15714–15721 (2006).
80. I. Cesar, K. Sivula, A. Kay, R. Zborik, and M. Gratzel, “Influence of feature size, film thickness, and silicon doping on the performance of nanostructured hematite photoanodes for solar water splitting,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 772–782 (2009).
81. H. G. Yang, C. H. Sun, S. Z. Qiao, J. Zou, G. Liu, S. C. Smith, H. M. Cheng, and G. Q. Lu, “Anatase TiO2 single crystals with a large percentage of reactive facets,” Nature 453, 638–641 (2008).
82. A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, K. Saikusa, K. Takahashi, T. Makino, Y. Segawa, H. Koinuma, and M. Kawasaki, “Single crystalline ZnO films grown on lattice-matched ScAlMgO4 (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2635–2637 (1999).
83. A. Paracchino, V. Laporte, K. Sivula, M. Grätzel, and E. Thimsen, “Highly active oxide photocathode for photoelectrochemical water reduction,” Nat. Mater. 10, 456–461 (2011).
84. Y. Lin, Y. Xu, M. T. Mayer, Z. I. Simpson, G. McMahon, S. Zhou, and D. Wang, “Growth of p-type hematite by atomic layer deposition and its utilization for improved solar water splitting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 5508–5511 (2012).
85. A. P. Bhirud, S. D. Sathaye, R. P. Waichal, L. K. Nikam, and B. B. Kale, “An eco-friendly, highly stable and efficient nanostructured p-type N-doped ZnO photocatalyst for environmentally benign solar hydrogen production,” Green Chem. 14, 2790–2798 (2012).
86. K. Sun, K. Madsen, P. Andersen, W. Bao, Z. Sunand, and D. Wang, “Metal on metal oxide nanowire co-catalyzed Si photocathode for solar water splitting,” Nanotechnology 23, 194013–194023 (2012).
87. L. Lin, D. Lele, W. Fuyu, L. Can, and W. Mei, “Visible light driven hydrogen production from a photo-active cathode based on a molecular catalyst and organic dye-sensitized p-type nanostructured NiO,” Chem. Commun. 48, 988–990 (2012).
88. T. Nann, S. K. Ibrahim, P. M. Woi, S. Xu, J. Ziegler, and C. J. Pickett, “Water splitting by visible light: A nanophotocathode for hydrogen production,” Angew. Chem. 49, 1574–1577 (2010).
89. U. A. Joshi, A. M. Palasyuk, and P. A. Maggard, “Photoelectrochemical investigation and electronic structure of a p-type CuNbO3 photocathode,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 13534–13539 (2011).
90. N. T. Hahn, V. C. Holmberg, B. A. Korgel, and C. B. Mullins, “Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of p-CuBi2O4 thin film photocathodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 6459–6466 (2012).
91. N. T. Hahn, H. Ye, D. W. Flaherty, A. J. Bard, and C. B. Mullins, “Reactive ballistic deposition of α-Fe2O3 thin films for photoelectrochemical water oxidation,” ACS Nano 4, 1977–1986 (2010).
92. N. T. Hahn and C. B. Mullins, “Photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured Ti- and Sn-doped α-Fe2O3 photoanodes,” Chem. Mater. 22, 6474–6482 (2010).
93. Y. Liang, T. Tsubota, L. P. A. Mooij, and R. van de Krol, “Highly improved quantum efficiencies for thin film BiVO4 photoanodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 17594–17598 (2011).
94. S. P. Berglund, D. W. Flaherty, N. T. Hahn, A. J. Bard, and C. B. Mullins, “Photoelectrochemical oxidation of water using nanostructured BiVO4 films,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 3794–3802 (2011).
96. Y. Matsumoto, M. Omae, K. Sugiyama, and E. I. Sato, “New photocathode materials for hydrogen evolution: CaFe2O4 and Sr7Fe10O22,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 577–581 (1987).
98. S. Kawasaki, K. Nakatsuji, J. Yoshinobu, F. Komori, R. Takahashi, M. Lippmaa, K. Mase, and A. Kudo, “Epitaxial Rh-doped SrTiO3 thin film photocathode for water splitting under visible light irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 033910–033914 (2012).
99. S. Kawasaki, K. Akagi, K. Nakatsuji, S. Yamamoto, I. Matsuda, Y. Harada, J. Yoshinobu, F. Komori, R. Takahashi, M. Lippmaa, C. Sakai, H. Niwa, M. Oshima, K. Iwashina, and A. Kudo, “Elucidation of Rh-induced in-gap states of Rh:SrTiO3 visible-light-driven photocatalyst by soft X-ray spectroscopy and first-principles calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 24445–24448 (2012).
100. K. Koumoto, H. Koduka, and W. S. Seo, “Thermoelectric properties of single crystal CuAlO2 with a layered structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 11, 251–252 (2001).
101. A. Jacob, C. Parent, P. Boutinaud, G. Leflem, J. P. Doumerc, A. Ammar, M. Elazhari, and M. Elaatmani, “Luminescent properties of delafossite-type oxides LaCuO2 and YCuO2,” Solid State Commun. 103, 529–532 (1997).
103. C. G. Read, Y. Park, and K. S. Choi, “Electrochemical synthesis of p-type CuFeO2 electrodes for use in a photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1872–1876 (2012).
104. M. A. Marquardt, N. A. Ashmore, and D. P. Cann, “Crystal chemistry and electrical properties of the delafossite structure,” Thin Solid Films 496, 146–156 (2006).
105. W. C. Sheets, E. Mugnier, A. Barnab, T. J. Marks, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Hydrothermal synthesis of delafossite-type oxides,” Chem. Mater. 18, 7–20 (2006).
106. H. Kawazoe, H. Yanagi, K. Ueda, and H. Hosono, “Transparent p-type conducting oxides: Design and fabrication of p-n heterojunctions,” MRS Bull. 25, 28–36 (2000).
108. R. D. Shannon, J. L. Gilson, and R. J. Bouchard, “Single crystal synthesis and electrical properties of CdSnO3, Cd2SnO4, In2TeO6, and CdIn2O4,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 38, 877–881 (1977).
109. A. N. Banerjee and K. K. Chattopadhyay, Reactive Sputtered Wide Bandgap p-Type Semiconducting Spinal AB2O4 and Delafossite ABO2 Thin Films for “Transparent Electronics” (Springer, London, New York, 2008).
112. H. Kawazoe, M. Yasukawa, H. Hyodo, M. Kurita, H. Yangui, and H. Hosono, “p-type electrical conduction in transparent thin films of CuAlO2,” Nature 389, 939–942 (1997).
113. H. Yanagi, H. Kawazoe, A. Kudo, M. Yasukawa, and H. Hosono, “Chemical design and thin film preparation of p-type conductive transparent oxides,” J. Electroceram. 4, 407–414 (2000).
115. Y. Bessekhouad, Y. Gabes, A. Bouguelia, and M. Trari, “The physical and photo electrochemical characterization of the crednerite CuMnO2,” J. Mater. Sci. 42, 6469–6476 (2007).
117. A. Derbal, S. Omeiri, A. Bouguelia, and M. Trari, “Characterization of new heterosystem CuFeO2/SnO2 application to visible-light induced hydrogen evolution,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33, 4274–4282 (2008).
118. S. Omeiri, B. Bellal, A. Bouguelia, Y. Bessekhouad, and M. Trari, “Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization of CuFeO2 single crystal,” J. Solid State Electrochem. 13, 1395–1401 (2009).
120. J. Y. Zheng, G. Song, C. W. Kim, and Y. S. Kang, “Facile preparation of p-CuO and p-CuO/n-CuWO4 junction thin films and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Electrochim. Acta 69, 340–344 (2012).
121. G. K. Mor, O. K. Varghese, R. H. T. Wilke, S. Sharma, K. Shankar, T. J. Latempa, K.-S. Choi, and C. A. Grimes, “p-type Cu-Ti-O nanotube arrays and their use in self-biased heterojunction photoelectrochemical diodes for hydrogen generation,” Nano Lett. 8, 1906–1911 (2008).
122. W. Siripala, A. Ivanovskaya, T. F. Jaramillo, S. H. Baeck, and E. W. McFarland, “A Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunction thin film cathode for photoelectrocatalysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 77, 229–237 (2003).
123. F. Qian, G. Wang, and Y. Li, “Solar-driven microbial photoelectrochemical cells with a nanowire photocathode,” Nano Lett. 10, 4686–4691 (2010).
124. L. Tong, A. Iwase, A. Nattestad, U. Bach, M. Weidelener, G. Guotz, A. Mishra, P. Bauerle, R. Amal, G. G. Wallace, and A. J. Mozer, “Sustained solar hydrogen generation using a dye-sensitised NiO photocathode/BiVO4 tandem photo-electrochemical device,” Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 9472–9475 (2012).
125. S. Id, K. Yamada, T. Matsunaga, H. Hagiwara, Y. Matsumoto, and T. Ishihara, “Preparation of p-type CaFe2O4 photocathodes for producing hydrogen from water,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 17343–17345 (2010).
Article metrics loading...
Harvesting solar energy for the production of clean fuel by a photoelectrochemical system is a very attractive, yet a challenging task. This review focuses on the recent efforts done to tailor metal oxide-based photocathode materials for the solar-driven hydrogen production. The materials are classified into three categories: simple oxides, complex oxides, and photocathodes used in p-n self-biased heterojunction cells. Generally, three strategies have been recommended to tailor p-type metal oxide semiconductors to meet the requirements for efficient solar-driven water splitting, namely (1) coating the p-type metal oxide either with a protective layer or a dye, (2) using co-catalyst, and (3) merging the p-type material with an n-type photoanode with the proper optical and electrical properties. In the light of those strategies, the optical, structural, and photoelectrochemical characteristics of such assemblies are discussed.
Full text loading...
Most read this month