Electron orbits in a magnetic field for electrons in bulk (solid) and edge (dashed) states.
Illustrating an observation of the Aharonov–Bohm effect in a hollow normal-metal cylinder of length L and radius R containing a tube of magnetic-field lines of force with total magnetic flux confined within an infinitely long cylinder of radius such that the magnetic field outside that cylinder is zero but the current in the ring is nonzero. The current varies periodically with the flux with period hc/e.
Persistent current in the presence of an Aharonov–Bohm flux and an external magnetic field .
Persistent current in a configuration with a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the Aharonov–Bohm flux.
Persistent current in a ring produced by an Aharonov–Bohm flux and the external radial magnetic field produced by a linear current flowing in a wire along the symmetry axis OZ of the ring.
Persistent current in a ring produced by an Aharonov–Bohm flux in the inner cylinder and a radial magnetic field created by a pair of magnetic coils and with oppositely directed magnetizations.
A setup for observation of the Aharonov–Bohm effect in crossed magnetic fields , , and together with a magnetic flux in the inner solenoid.
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