Microphotographs of the surface of Al–3.8 at. % Li alloy after IPD by hydroextrusion via schemes C1 (a) and C3 (b) (the direction of extrusion is indicated by an arrow).
Microphotographs of grains in Al–3.8 at. % Li alloy after combination hydroextrusion via scheme S4: transmission microscopy (a) and scanning microscopy (b).
“True stress σ- true strain ɛ” curves of IPD Al–Li: samples C1 (a), C2 (b), C3 (c), and C4 (d). The dashed curves correspond to the initial annealed alloy C0 (Ref. 12).
Nominal yield point σ0.2 (a), maximum stress σm (b), and uniform plastic deformation en (c) of microcrystalline Al–Li after hydroextrusion: C1 (○), C2 (▿), C3 (Δ), C4 (□), and C0 (Ref. 12).
Strain hardening coefficient θ of microcrystalline Al–Li as a function of reduced flow stress (σ–σ0.2) at temperatures of 77 and 350 K (a), 4.2 K (b). The C0 curves are from Ref. 12.
Activation volume V/b 3 as a function of reduced flow stress (σ–σ0.2) for microcrystalline Al–Li: (a) C1 (○) and C3 (Δ) at 155 K and C3 (▴) at 350 K; (b) C1 (○) and C3 (Δ) at 77 K and C3 (▴) at 4.2 K. The dashed curves are for coarse-grained samples, C0, with data from Refs. 12 and 13.
Characteristics of the sample ingots.
X-ray structural characteristics.
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