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Volume 11, Issue 8, August 1999
11(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.870105View Description Hide Description
Direct numerical simulations of the motion of many buoyant bubbles are presented. The Navier–Stokes equation is solved by a front tracking/finite difference method that allows a fully deformable interface. The evolution of 91 nearly spherical bubbles at a void fraction of 6% is followed as the bubbles rise over 100 bubble diameters. While the individual bubble velocities fluctuate, the average motion reaches a statistical steady state with a rise Reynolds number of about 25.