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An experimental study of drop-on-demand drop formation
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10.1063/1.2217929
/content/aip/journal/pof2/18/7/10.1063/1.2217929
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/18/7/10.1063/1.2217929

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Experimental setup.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A push-mode piezoelectric drop-on-demand printhead. Nozzle diameter ; nozzle length .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Reproducibility of drop generation of mixture GW using the double-peak waveform shown in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitude and frequency. After about ten drops, drop ejection becomes identical.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Two signal waveforms used in present experiments. Parameters of the double-peak waveform are: rising time , falling time , dead time , rising time of minor peak, and falling time of minor peak. The single-peak waveform is obtained by removing the minor peak from the double-peak waveform.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Sequence of images of DOD drop formation for GW using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitude and frequency. Interframe time and image size. GW is a mixture of glycerin/water with viscosity and surface tension.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Several representative points during the evolution of the ejected liquid.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Curves of DOD drop formation corresponding to the images shown in Fig. 5. The standard deviations of position are less than .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Sequential images of ejection and stretching of three liquids (top to bottom: water, GW, and GWI) using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitudes of 21.6 and and frequency.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Position of leading edge of water, GW and GWI at using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitude and frequency. axis is the radial position along the nozzle exit, and axis is the distance of the leading edge from the nozzle exit. The dashed line is the fitted curve using the second polynomial regression, and a circle indicates the measured values.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Temporal variation of before pinch-off from the nozzle exit for three liquids using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitudes of 21.6 and and frequency. is the ratio of the distance of point 1 from nozzle, , to the nozzle diameter ). Highest time shown for each plot corresponds to the time of pinch-off from nozzle exit. The standard deviations of position are less than .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Volume and surface area of ejected liquid vs time using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitude and frequency. A plus sign indicates the time of liquid separation from the nozzle exit. The error bar stands for one standard deviation.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

The effect of driving voltage and liquid properties on the breakup(s) of the liquid thread using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with several voltage amplitudes and frequency . Times below each drop are in microseconds from first fluid exit from orifice, and value at the bottom of each frame is the voltage amplitude of driving signals.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Breakup of the secondary liquid thread for GWI at using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitude and frequency.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

DOD drop formation curves for GW using the double-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitudes of 23.6 and and frequency . The primary drop and satellite: (a) recombine for driving voltage of and (b) do not recombine for driving voltage of . The standard deviations of position are less than .

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

DOD drop formation curves for GW using the single-peak waveform in Fig. 4 with voltage amplitude and frequency. The primary drop and satellite do not merge. The standard deviations of position are less than .

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

vs surface tension for several viscosities, assuming a density of and nozzle diameter of . is the dimensionless growth rate of the most unstable disturbance.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Properties of liquids in experiments on DOD drop formation.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Ejection speed and speed of point 1 at pinch-off from nozzle exit.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Breakup times of three liquid threads and related parameters.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Normalized pinch-off length and wavelength of most unstable disturbance.

Generic image for table
Table V.

Speed of liquid head, retreating speed of liquid tail, capillary speed, and parameter .

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Sizes of primary drops and satellites.

Generic image for table
Table VII.

Normalized maximum pinch-off length compared with prediction value using Eq. (13).

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/18/7/10.1063/1.2217929
2006-07-06
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: An experimental study of drop-on-demand drop formation
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/18/7/10.1063/1.2217929
10.1063/1.2217929
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