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Leukocyte margination in a model microvessel
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

System schematic.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Sample visualizations of cases from Table I: (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) . Plotted are the discrete quadrature points, interpolated from the control points, which define the cells as discussed in Sec. II B. Flow is from left to right.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Mean velocity profile for case , —; the show the velocity profile calculated in the absence of cells, just using the forces from (14) with parabolic fit . (b) Case , — is contrasted with the slower flowing case - - -.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a-d) Leukocyte centroid trajectories and probability distributions across the model microvessel for the cases as labeled; (e) shows the same for case as in (c) but for a red cell. In most cases only a part of the simulation time is shown.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Probability of leukocyte being within of either wall for the constant cell properties -marked cases in Table I and for corresponding cases with mean hematocrit 0.33 and . The - - - curve is for cases with (see text).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Marginated probability of for all cases. For each point the bar length is as measured on the vertical axis. The solid correspond to the cases shown in Fig. 5.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Contours of mean -direction velocity averaged on the condition that for cases (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , and (f) . All plots show contours at intervals of 0.001. Negative contours are dashed and the contour is not shown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Local red cell volume density averaged when for cases (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , and (f) . The circle shows the approximate location and shape of the leukocyte, though it does move and deform slightly in the course of the simulation.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Visualizations of leukocyte’s neighborhood for strongly and weakly marginating cases for relatively flexible and stiff red cells.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) Red cell density for case ; (b) randomly selected visualizations of the leukocytes neighborhood. The statistical sample is smaller in this case than those in Fig. 8, which leads to choppier contours.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Top) Probability distribution of leukocyte wall distance; (bottom) red-cell density close to the wall. The lines show the -cases in Table I: –, –, , - - -, and — .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Leukocyte wall distance versus its speed for the -marked cases in Table I with fit — . The show the same for the single red cell test cases discussed in the text with fit - - - .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Probability distribution of leukocyte distance from the wall for case —– and case with and tripled .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Cases simulated. The -marked cases indicate a series with constant cell properties.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Leukocyte margination in a model microvessel