Examples of the tensile strength of unfiltered tap water as functions of temperature for different degrees of gas saturation and system pressure . At a given temperature, is the ratio of the actual gas content to that found at saturation at atmospheric pressure. [Courtesy of A. P. Keller (Ref. 11).]
Hydrophilic polystyrene particles with hydroxyl groups on their surfaces. Particle diameter . Scale bar: (a) , (b) (Ref. 19).
Polystyrene particles with corrugated surfaces. Particle diameters . Scale bar: (a) , (b) (Ref. 20).
A free gas bubble of radius which is fully covered by a monolayer of skin molecules with the surface tension . This bubble is in gas diffusion balance at the far-field pressure . When it is suddenly exposed to a reduced far-field pressure , it expands, and the skin breaks up into islands separated by water of surface tension . The two-component surface gives the bubble an effective surface tension that depends on its radius , Eq. (2).
Solid surface submerged in water that has detached from a concave element, thus forming an interfacial void. The void surface is shown at initial conditions , and during expansion driven by a reduction of the far-field pressure.
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