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Simulation of a hot coaxial jet: Direct noise prediction and flow-acoustics correlations
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10.1063/1.3081561
/content/aip/journal/pof2/21/3/10.1063/1.3081561
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/21/3/10.1063/1.3081561
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Representation of the section of the LES mesh grid. Top: full computational domain; bottom: zoom in the pipe region. Every 12th grid point is shown in both axial and radial directions.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Radial profiles at the exit of the coplanar nozzle at : (a) mean axial velocity, ; (b) rms levels of the fluctuating axial velocity, .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Representation of the section of the mesh grid used for the far-field propagation from the surface at . Every 40th grid point is shown in both axial and radial directions.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Snapshots in the section: (a) vorticity norm , (b) static temperature . The gray scales are for and for , respectively, from light to dark.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Representation in the section: contours of mean axial velocity , with , from gray to black.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Profiles of (a) mean axial velocity , (b) mean temperature ; (—) along the jet centerline at and (- - -) along the secondary jet core centerline at . CoJeN PIV measurements made along the jet centerline by: (◻) Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, University of Warwick, shifted axially by for the comparison.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Representation in the section: contours of rms fluctuating axial velocity , from gray to black.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Profiles along the jet centerline at of rms levels of (a) the fluctuating axial velocity and (b) the fluctuating radial velocity . CoJeN PIV data by: (◻) Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, University of Warwick, shifted axially by .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Snapshot in the section of the azimuthal vorticity just downstream of the nozzle lips. The gray scale is defined for from dark to light.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Spectrum of the fluctuating radial velocity obtained as a function of Strouhal number : (a) in the inner mixing layer at and , (b) in the outer mixing layer at and (—) ; (- - -) .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Spectral properties of the fluctuating radial velocity along the potential core axes: (a) variations of the Strouhal number peak, (—) at , (- - -) at ; (b) spectra at the end of (—) the inner core at and (- - -) the outer core at , as a function of .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Variations of (a) the intermittency factor evaluated from vorticity and (b) the convection velocity , along the potential core centerlines: (—) at and (- - -) at .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Time evolution of (a) axial velocity and (b) radial vorticity norm near the end of the secondary potential core, at , , and .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Time evolution of (a) axial velocity , (b) radial vorticity norm , (c) density , and (d) temperature near the end of the primary potential core, at , , and .

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Snapshots in the section of pressure fields obtained at LES time step 320 000: (a) LES pressure; (b) LES pressure in the central region, and, in peripheral regions, pressure computed from the acoustic equations using the control surface at indicated by black lines. The gray scale is defined for levels between −130 and , from light to dark.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Snapshots of pressure obtained at LES time step 320 000 by solving the acoustic equations and of the LES vorticity norm in the central region. The gray scale is defined for pressure levels between −40 and , from light to dark. The black points indicate the observation points.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Azimuthal cross-correlation functions of the fluctuating pressure obtained at from the nozzle exit, for radiation angles of (—) 30° and (- - -) 60°.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Pressure spectra obtained at from the nozzle exit: (—) simulation results and (gray —) CoJeN experimental data, for radiation angles relative to the jet direction of (a) 30° and (b) 90°, as functions of Strouhal number .

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Sound pressure levels obtained at from the nozzle exit, as a function of the radiation angle relative to the jet direction. Levels calculated for Strouhal numbers : (—) simulation results, (gray —) CoJeN experimental data, (gray - - -) experimental data ±3 dB. Overall levels calculated for : (gray ⋯⋯) experimental data.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Correlations between far-field low-pass filtered pressure at 30° and (a) axial velocity and (b) radial vorticity norm , along (-axis: time delay ; -axis: axial location). The gray scales are defined from light to dark, (a) from −0.12 to 0.12 and (b) from −0.06 to 0.06. The white line indicates the propagation time at the ambient sound speed and the dotted lines show the end of the two potential cores.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Correlations between far-field low-pass filtered pressure at 30° and turbulent quantities at at the end of the secondary potential core: (—) fluctuating axial velocity and (- - -) radial vorticity norm . The dotted line represents the propagation time at the ambient sound speed.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Correlations between far-field low-pass filtered pressure at 30° and (a) velocity , (b) vorticity norm , (c) density , and (d) temperature , along (-axis: time delay ; -axis: axial location). The gray scales are defined [(a), (c), and (d)] from −0.28 to 0.28 and (b) from −0.12 to 0.12. The white line indicates the propagation time at the ambient sound speed and the dotted lines show the end of the two potential cores.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

Correlations between far-field low-pass filtered pressure at 30° and turbulent quantities at at the end of the primary potential core: (a) (—) axial velocity and (- - -) vorticity norm , (b) (—) density , and (- - -) temperature . The dotted line represents the propagation time at the ambient sound speed.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/21/3/10.1063/1.3081561
2009-03-13
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Simulation of a hot coaxial jet: Direct noise prediction and flow-acoustics correlations
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/21/3/10.1063/1.3081561
10.1063/1.3081561
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