Schematic of the flow field along the tunnel center line. The definition of the jet PR proposed by Cubbison et al. (Ref. 2), is used throughout this paper.
Isometric view of the structured computational grid composed of a combination of -type and -type grid topologies for a total of 13 zones. The inset shows detail of the -type grid wrapping around the primary injector. Total number of cells is cells, the surface mesh shows every other computational cell.
Blow-up sequence showing the mesh close to the solid surface of the flat plate.
Results of the grid-convergence study. The moment and force coefficients are normalized using the results from the fine grid ( cells).
Mach contours on the plane of symmetry of the jet. Part (a) shows large-scale view and part (b) shows the detail of the flow field around the injector with the main flow features highlighted with solid lines. The solid lines are sketches indicating the recognizable flow patterns typical of the underexpanded jet exhausting in a quiescent medium.
TI contours (a) on the plane of symmetry and (b) as seen in an isoview of the detailed area at the inlet. The colors on the surface of the flat plate represent pressure coefficient and are used for illustration only in this caption.
(a) Pressure coefficient distribution along the tunnel centerline and (b) pressure coefficient mapping on the surface of the flat plate.
Converged inlet boundary layer profiles at different cross flow locations for (a) TI and (b) velocity. corresponds to the center line.
Experimental Schlieren photograph of the jet interaction flow field, , [see Viti et al. (Ref. 8) and Wallis (Ref. 48)].
Comparison of the Schlieren picture with the CFD solution on the plane of symmetry. The CFD contours represent the magnitude of the first-derivative of the density with respect to space, .
Comparison of the experimental and CFD pressure coefficient. (a) Mappings on surface of flat plate and (b) along the tunnel center line. The experimental data were obtained through PSP. , [Viti et al.(Ref. 26)].
Isometric view of the flow around the injector with streamlines highlighting the main vortical structures. Mach number contours on symmetry plane, contours on surface of flat plate, vorticity magnitude contours on cross plane.
Detail of the isometric view of the oblique barrel shock with two groups of streamlines highlighting the flow in the recirculation region. Mach numbers contours are plotted on the cross plane and plane of symmetry, contours on the flat plate surface. Velocity vectors ( projection) superimposed on the cross plane.
Cross plane mappings of vorticity magnitude (left) and Mach number (right).
Cross plane mappings of vorticity magnitude (left) and Mach number (right) with velocity vectors superimposed at a location of downstream of the injector. The flow is into the plane of the page.
Cross plane mappings of vorticity magnitude (left) with projected velocity vectors and Mach number (right) with velocity vectors superimposed at a location of downstream of the injector. The flow is into the plane of the page. The dashed box represents the flow region that is magnified in Fig. 18(a).
Schematic of the flow field at a transverse section aft of the barrel shock.
Downstream view of the indent in the barrel shock created by the reflection of the compression wave on the surface of the flat plate downstream of the injection location. The flow is out of the plane of the page. (a) Detailed view of the indent. Density gradient contours on a cross plane at . (b) Downstream view of the barrel shock represented by the MACH 5.0 isosurface. Cross plane is colored by vorticity magnitude.
(a) Side view of the inside of the barrel shock represented by MACH 5.0 isosurfaces also shown in Fig. 18(b). The colored contours represent Mach number on a plane at from the plane of symmetry. (b) Isometric view of the MACH 5.0 isosurface. The contours on the plane of symmetry represent Mach number, on the flat plate pressure coefficient and on the cross plane vorticity magnitude.
Streamlines above the flat plate simulating oil surface-flow visualization with pressure coefficient mapping superimposed.
Computational domain dimensions.
Flat plate and injector dimensions.
Summary of freestream and jet conditions.
Grid convergence study results, normal force coefficient, (top), and pitching moment coefficient, (bottom).
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