Sketch of the geometry of the torus.
Staggered arrangement of , , and .
Variation of drag coefficient with rate of rotation for aspect ratios and (a) , (b) , and (c) .
Streamline patterns of flow past a rotating torus at with .
Streamline patterns of flow past a rotating torus at for : (a) and (b) .
The scaled propulsion velocity of a rotating torus powered by constant velocity vs the aspect ratio.
Effect of grid refinement on , , and .
Description of grids with corresponding .
Validation of the numerical algorithm: comparison with the numerical results of Sheard et al. (Ref. 23).
Drag coefficient of flow over a rotating torus at with .
Critical rotation speed for which the total drag coefficient is zero. The respective values of and are represented as well.
Numerical results for the rate of rotation .
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