Side view of the floating water bridge (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3518463.1]10.1063/1.3518463.1
Setup for the beakers configuration.
First row of images: different side views during separation of the beakers. Second row: different top views during separation of the beakers. Nominal voltage: 15 kV. The scale bars have a length of 10 mm; in the images on the right, the bridge reaches an aspect ratio . (Enhanced online. Please see video linked to Fig. 1.)
Measurements in the beakers configuration. (a) Raw data for as a function of the beaker separation and as a function of the applied voltage (inset). (b) Electrocapillary number Ca vs the aspect ratio during the separation of the beakers. (c) Electrogravitational number vs the aspect ratio . (d) Bond number Bo vs the aspect ratio during the separation of the beakers..
Setup for the axisymmetric configuration.
Electrocapillary number vs the critical aspect ratio at which the bridge breaks for a fixed voltage and slowly increasing .
Different side views of a glycerine bridge for decreasing voltages (increasing electrogravitational numbers ); from left to right: , 0.8, and 1. The depicted line depicts a parabola with the predicted at the nozzle. The nozzles diameter is 3 mm. (Enhanced online. Please see video linked to Fig. 1.)
Angle at the edge of the “catenary bridge” vs the electrogravitational number ; the straight line corresponds to the prediction in Eq. (5).
Surface velocity for different electrocapillary numbers ; straight line represent a linear fit.
Visualization of the mixing process with of water and of glycerol (1000 times more viscous). First and last snapshots are the initial and the final states. The total process takes about 2 s. (Enhanced online. Please see video linked to Fig. 1.)
Properties of the employed liquids.
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