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Building water bridges in air: Electrohydrodynamics of the floating water bridge
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10.1063/1.3518463
/content/aip/journal/pof2/22/12/10.1063/1.3518463
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/22/12/10.1063/1.3518463

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Side view of the floating water bridge (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3518463.1]10.1063/1.3518463.1

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Setup for the beakers configuration.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

First row of images: different side views during separation of the beakers. Second row: different top views during separation of the beakers. Nominal voltage: 15 kV. The scale bars have a length of 10 mm; in the images on the right, the bridge reaches an aspect ratio . (Enhanced online. Please see video linked to Fig. 1.)

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Measurements in the beakers configuration. (a) Raw data for as a function of the beaker separation and as a function of the applied voltage (inset). (b) Electrocapillary number Ca vs the aspect ratio during the separation of the beakers. (c) Electrogravitational number vs the aspect ratio . (d) Bond number Bo vs the aspect ratio during the separation of the beakers..

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Setup for the axisymmetric configuration.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Electrocapillary number vs the critical aspect ratio at which the bridge breaks for a fixed voltage and slowly increasing .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Different side views of a glycerine bridge for decreasing voltages (increasing electrogravitational numbers ); from left to right: , 0.8, and 1. The depicted line depicts a parabola with the predicted at the nozzle. The nozzles diameter is 3 mm. (Enhanced online. Please see video linked to Fig. 1.)

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Angle at the edge of the “catenary bridge” vs the electrogravitational number ; the straight line corresponds to the prediction in Eq. (5).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Surface velocity for different electrocapillary numbers ; straight line represent a linear fit.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Visualization of the mixing process with of water and of glycerol (1000 times more viscous). First and last snapshots are the initial and the final states. The total process takes about 2 s. (Enhanced online. Please see video linked to Fig. 1.)

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Properties of the employed liquids.

video/mp4,video/x-flv,video/flv,audio.mp3,audio.mpeg

Multimedia

The following multimedia file is available, if you log in: 1.3518463.original.v1.mov
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/content/aip/journal/pof2/22/12/10.1063/1.3518463
2010-12-15
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Building water bridges in air: Electrohydrodynamics of the floating water bridge
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/22/12/10.1063/1.3518463
10.1063/1.3518463
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