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Effect of free-stream turbulence on the flow over a sphere
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Variation of the drag coefficient with the free-stream turbulence intensity: (●) smooth sphere, Achenbach (Ref. 11); (▲) , (2.1%), (×) (3.8%), Raithby and Eckert (Ref. 3); (◻) , (○) (4.5%), (▽) (6.0%), Torii et al. (Ref. 4).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Variation of the FST intensity along the streamwise direction (; ): (○) grid 1, (◻) grid 2, and (△) grid 3. The experimental data are fitted using a power law (Refs. 19 and 20). Here, corresponds to the location of grid, and is the stagnation point of sphere.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Variation of the drag coefficient with the Reynolds number: (●) basic sphere, (○) , (◻) 6%, and (△) 8%. The data from Achenbach (Ref. 11) for basic sphere (×) are also included here.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Surface pressure distributions: (a) , (b) 6%, and (c) 8%.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Oil-flow patterns on the sphere surface at : (a) , (b) 6%, and (c) 8%. The broken arrows indicate the approximate locations of laminar separation (LS), reattachment (RA), and turbulent separation (TS), respectively. Note that the main separation line is not clearly observable at low wind speed as for in (a).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Profiles of the mean streamwise velocity (●) and rms streamwise velocity fluctuations (○) above the sphere surface for : (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , and (e) .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Characteristics of grids used in this study. Here, , Tu, and denote the grid solidity, turbulence intensity, and integral length scale, respectively. See Fig. 3 for the measurement locations of Tu and .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effect of free-stream turbulence on the flow over a sphere