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Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field
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10.1063/1.3541818
/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/1/10.1063/1.3541818
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/1/10.1063/1.3541818
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic representation of the ultrasonic droplet generator, including relevant components and an externally applied electric field for droplet charging.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Experimental measurements of normalized charge-per-droplet as a function of the Debye number for a dimensionless dc electric field strength and device operation at 0.905 MHz. Ejected droplets are in diameter. Data points and error bars represent the average values and standard deviations, respectively, of the results obtained from five replicate experimental measurements at each value of the Debye number. The solid curve represents a trendline of the experimental data.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Experimental measurements of normalized charge-per-droplet as a function of dimensionless electric field strength at (a) lower and (b) higher Debye numbers, for device operation at 0.905 MHz. Ejected droplets are in diameter. Data points and error bars represent the average values and standard deviations, respectively, of the results obtained from five replicate experimental measurements at each value of the Debye number. Solid curves represent trendlines of the experimental data.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Simulated fluid interface evolution during ejection of a droplet from a diameter nozzle orifice by the ultrasonic atomizer through a single 1 MHz pressure wave cycle. There is a 125 ns delay between successive profiles.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Simulated charge-per-droplet normalized by the Rayleigh limit, as a function of the Debye number for several dimensionless dc electric field magnitudes. Results are for ejection from a nozzle at 1 MHz atomization frequency.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Simulated charge-per-droplet normalized by the Rayleigh limit, as a function of applied dc electric field for (a) low , (b) low-medium , (c) medium-high , and (d) high Debye numbers.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Charge transport time scales (left ordinate axis) for ultrasonic atomization at 1 MHz frequency, plotted together with simulated charge-per-droplet values (right ordinate axis), as a function of the Debye number for dimensionless electric field strength of .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Schematic representation of the internal (induced by local charge redistribution) electric field direction and net charge transport in an evolving droplet for charging in regime II. Profiles are for ejection from a diameter nozzle and 1 MHz atomization frequency.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Simulated charge-per-droplet normalized by the Rayleigh limit, for ultrasonic atomization at 1 MHz frequency for the first ejected droplet and the average of consecutively ejected droplets as a function of the Debye number.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/1/10.1063/1.3541818
2011-01-11
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/1/10.1063/1.3541818
10.1063/1.3541818
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