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Large eddy simulation study of scalar transport in fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers
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10.1063/1.3663376
/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/12/10.1063/1.3663376
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/12/10.1063/1.3663376

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color) Instantaneous contours of stream-wise velocity and scalar difference from LES of a fully developed wind turbine array boundary layer (case F); (a) stream-wise velocity on a x–y plane at a height z = zh corresponding to hub-height (the wind turbine centers). (b) Normalized scalar difference distribution , at the same x–y plane and the same time.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Mean velocity profiles for wind farms with different loading parameters. The dotted straight line represents the theoretical logarithmic profile: , and the solid line with hollow circles shows the LES result for the case with no wind turbines. The two parallel dotted lines represent the lower and upper limit of the wind turbine rotor disk. These will be used for the remainder of the vertical profile plots.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Mean velocity profiles for wind farms with different loading parameters. The dotted straight line represents the theoretical logarithmic profile: , and the solid line with hollow circles shows the LES result for the case with no wind turbines.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Vertical profiles of the total shear stress for wind farms with different loading coefficients. (a) shows the profiles for cases A to G, where the thrust coefficient is changed. On the top, right corner, the lowest 15% of the bottom region of the shear stress profiles is magnified. (b) shows the same profiles but for cases E, E1-E3; where the spacing sx , sy is changed.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Symbols: friction velocity ratios as function of loading coefficient. Lines: predictions of simple 1D model.5 (a) Ratio u * hi /u * lo (see Eq. (23)); (b) u * hi /UG (see Eq. ((7))) and (c) u * lo /UG (from (a) and (b)).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Vertical profiles of the total passive scalar flux for wind farms with different loading coefficients. (a) shows the profiles for cases A to G, where only the thrust coefficient is changed. (b) shows the same profiles but for cases E and E1-E3, where the spacing sx , sy is changed. On the top, right corner insert in both plots, the lower 20% of the domain height is shown to examine the scalar flux profiles in more detail.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Vertical profiles of the scalar difference between the surface and a given height , normalized by the scalar difference between the surface and the top of the domain, (θs  − θ ) for the different study scenarios. (a) shows the profiles for cases A to G, where only the thrust coefficient is changed. (b) shows the same profiles for cases E and E1-E3; where the spacing sx , sy is changed. The centered small inserts in both plots show the lower 15% of the domain height so it is possible to examine the profiles in more detail close to the ground.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Symbols: Ratio of scalar flux with and without wind turbines (evaluated at a height 1.5zh ), as function of wind farm loading parameter c ft.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Prandtl number ratio obtained from LES and empirical fits. (a) shows a sample vertical profile of the ratio of Prandtl numbers from LES case E, with c ft = 0.0143. (b) shows the ratio as a function of c ft for three different heights above the wind turbine region. The hollow squares are the LES values at z/zh  = 1.5. The dotted-dashed line represents an exponential fit to these values. Similarly, the hollow circles and the triangles represent the LES values at z/zh  = 2 and z/zh  = 3, respectively. The thick solid line and the dashed line are their corresponding exponential fits used in the model.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Solid line: ratio of scalar fluxes obtained using Eq. (31), as a function of c ft. Hollow triangles: ratio of scalar fluxes obtained from LES data. The ratio u * hi /u * (first factor in right-hand-side of Eq. (31)) is plotted in the same figure with dotted-dashed line, while the open circles show the LES values. Finally, the remaining factors on the right-hand-side of Eq. (31) are also plotted (dashed line for the model, and open squares for the LES results).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Further detailed analysis of scalar flux ratios with and without wind turbines and comparison between single column model and LES results. The analytical results are presented as solid lines while LES results are shown as triangles. (a) shows the ratio of scalar fluxes; (b) shows the ratio of scalar fluxes divided by the ratio of Prandtl numbers; and (c) shows the ratio of scalar fluxes divided by the ratio of Prandtl numbers and also divided by the ratio u * hi /u * (corresponding to the last term in the right hand side of Eq. (31)).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Vertical profiles of the φθ function (a) and the scalar sub-grid coefficient (b).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Vertical profile of the subgrid turbulent Prandtl number. The solid line shows the case with no wind turbines. The dashed line shows the less loaded wind farm scenario (A; ), with increasing thrust coefficient and the further the lines are shifted towards the right.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Table summarizing parameters of the various LES cases.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Table summarizing the measured effective surface roughness for the different study cases and the corresponding re-normalization factors u * hi /UG , computed using Eq. (7) for the fixed Roh  = 1000.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/12/10.1063/1.3663376
2011-12-20
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Large eddy simulation study of scalar transport in fully developed wind-turbine array boundary layers
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/23/12/10.1063/1.3663376
10.1063/1.3663376
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