The computational domain: (a) boundary conditions (not to scale); (b) a typical grid mesh (only every fourth mesh point shown in each direction; the center of the jet outlet is at x = 3D, y = 3D, Z = 0).
Comparison of penetration height with experiment fitting line proposed by Kaye and Hunt (Ref. 18).
Penetration height versus non-dimensional time. Markers: simulations; lines: model equations from Wang et al. (Ref. 29) adapted for negatively buoyant jets.
Determined buoyant formation number versus Richardson number.
Circulation within total domain and within head vortex rings for Rid = −0.035 and −0.052.
(Color) Vorticity distributions for Rid = −0.04 (first row), −0.09 (second row), and −0.35 (third row).
(Color) Physical map of vortex ring dynamics, where ΓVR = 0.5fM U 0 D predicted by the slug model.
(Color) Comparison of flow patterns around neutral point. Left panel: Rid = −0.035; middle panel: Rid = 0; right panel: Rid = 0.035.
Modified slug model applied to buoyant formation numbers.
Summary of maximum penetration distance at steady state in literature.
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