Illustration of wave vector arrangement for maximum growth in a three-wave resonant interaction with highly oblique angles. For this case, ω 1 = ω 2 = ω 0/2.
Illustration of wave tank in the Coastal Engineering Lab at Johns Hopkins University.
Side view of the wave tank showing lutocline elevation increasing with time under wave action. In each image, the top arrow indicates the water surface and the lower arrow indicates the lutocline. Time after the start of the wave maker is indicated. In this test, the interfacial waves began to form around 14 min when the lutocline was approximately 3 cm below the water surface. A 3.4 s wave period was used and each image is taken during the trough of the surface wave. A horizontal support bar for the tank is visible in the middle of each image. Field of view is approximately 70 × 50 cm.
Images of interfacial waves on the lutocline, which is approximately 3 cm below the water surface, for two cases: (a) 2.8 s surface wave period, photographed in January, and (b) 3.4 s surface wave period, photographed in May. The surface wave propagates towards the bottom of the image for both cases. Note, the continuous nature of the interfacial waves and their presence across the entire area of the tank (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3639189.1] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3639189.1]10.1063/1.3639189.110.1063/1.3639189.1
Image of interfacial waves, as viewed from directly overhead, taken from a test using a 3.4 s wave period. The surface wave propagates from bottom to top of the image. Field of view for the image is approximately 55 × 45 cm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3639189.2]10.1063/1.3639189.2
(Color online) Illustration of standing interfacial wave behavior. The images are overhead views of the water surface taken after the passing of three consecutive crests of the surface wave crest, which propagates upward in each image. The number in the upper left hand corner of each image refers to the crest number, such that “1” is after the first crest, “2” is after the second crest, and “3” is after the third. Note how the fixed dashed marker corresponds alternatively with a dark streak (interfacial wave trough) in images 1 and 3 and with a light streak (interfacial wave crest) in image 2. Surface wave period is 3.4 s and field of view for each image is approximately 55 × 45 cm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3639189.3]10.1063/1.3639189.3
Nonlinear interfacial waves with evidence of instability. Note, the very wide crests (light colored) and sharp, narrow troughs (dark), as compared with Figure 5. Surface wave period is 2.8 s and field of view is approximately 55 × 45 cm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3639189.4]10.1063/1.3639189.4
Series of images of nonlinear interfacial waves with evidence of secondary interfacial waves in a 2.8 s period surface wave. Images are taken during a surface wave trough (a), the following crest (b), and the next trough (c). Secondary waves are visible in image (b). These waves have a measured wavelength of 1/4th the primary interfacial wave. Note the slight instability in upper left corner of (c). Field of view for each image is approximately 55 × 45 cm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3639189.5]10.1063/1.3639189.5
Interfacial wavelength versus surface wave period. The lines are theoretical predictions based on Eq. (1) using h 1 = 0.03 m, h 2 = 0.51 m, ρ 1 = 1.0 g/ml, and three different values of ρ 2. The data points are measured wavelength values for three different periods of testing, each period lasting about 4-5 days.
Effect of upper layer thickness on interfacial wave profile. Normalized wave profile, calculated using Eq. (4), is plotted versus time for three different upper layer thickness values. The corresponding upper thickness values using d = 0.54 m are 27 cm, 2.2 cm, and 1.7 cm. Fixed values include a 0 = 2 cm, T = 6.8 s, ρ 1 = 1.0 g/ml, and ρ 2 = 1.005 g/ml. Wavelength for each profile was calculated using Eq. (3) and varied between 12.9 and 17.0 cm, with higher order (smaller h 1/d) waves having smaller wavelengths.
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