(Color online). Sequence of relative vorticity fields at the surface of the fluid layer from the numerical simulation A6 in Table I for times t = 17 s (a), 150 s (b), 300 s (c), and 1800 s (d). The surface velocity field is shown by arrows. The color scale shows vorticity in s−1.
(Color online) Profiles of radial velocity (cm/s) measured along the arc across the wave train at r = R/2 at times t = 15, 16, 17, and 18 s.
(Color online) Hovmoeller (space-time) diagrams of the azimuthal velocity resulting from the same numerical simulation as that in Fig. 1. Part (a) shows the azimuthal velocity measured along the radial direction 90° westward of the source and part (b) shows the azimuthal velocity measured along the azimuthal direction at r/R = 0.8. The grayscale shows velocity in cm/s.
(Color online) Time averaged azimuthal velocity profiles measured at 90° west of the source (see Fig. 3(a)). The thick solid line (red online) shows the velocity for the barotropic flow from the beginning of the simulation at t = 0 to t = 450 s. The velocity for turbulent baroclinic flow between 1000 s < t < 2000 s is given by the solid black line while the dashed black line gives the velocity when the source is turned off during the time interval between 2500 s and 3600 s. Positive velocity corresponds to eastward flow.
The jet scale L j vs. the baroclinic radius of deformation R c (a) and modified Rhines scale L Rh (b) for all numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. The open squares and circles show the data measured for barotropic jets in the series of simulations A1-A10 and B1-B11, respectively. The filled squares and circles show the data measured when the flow is baroclinic and turbulent. Triangles represent the numerical simulations C1-C3 while diamonds show the data for the laboratory experiments E1-E5 in the baroclinic regime.
(Color online) Sequence of velocity fields in experiment E1 measured at t = 39 s (a), 168 s (b), 739 s (c), and 1200 s (d). The velocity vectors are superposed on the altimetry images of the fluid surface. Only every 10th velocity vector is shown. The inserts show the color maps of azimuthal velocity varying from −0.8 (blue online) to 0.8 cm/s (red online) such that light grey bands (yellow-red online) indicate eastward jets while dark bands (blue online) indicate westward jets.
(Color online) Azimuthal velocity measured along the radial direction for experiment E1 in the fully developed turbulent baroclinic regime: Hovmoeller diagram (a) and time averaged profile (b). The grayscale shows the velocity in cm/s. Positive velocity corresponds to eastward flow.
(Color online) Snapshot from the laboratory video of experiment E5. The flow is visualized by the AIV method where the color represents the slope of the surface. The arrows indicate the direction of jets associated with two plumes propagating clockwise (westward) (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3678017.1]10.1063/1.3678017.1
(Color online) Comparison of the azimuthal velocity fields in experiment E5 (a) and (c) and numerical simulation C3 (b) and (d): t = 100 s (a) and (b) and 400 s (c) and (d). Color scale shows velocity in cm/s. Light grey bands (yellow-red online) indicate eastward jets while dark bands (blue online) indicate westward jets.
Parameters of numerical simulations A1-A10, B1-B11, and C1-C3 and laboratory experiments E1-E5.
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