A schematic of an elastic plate pitching in a free stream.
Histories of (a) the tail excursion, z tail, and (b) the thrust coefficient computed on three grids for f = 1, α = 12°, and K = 5. The inset in (a) shows a zoom view.
The normalized tail excursion (a) and the phase delay between the trailing edge and the leading edge (b) for α = 12°. The value of K corresponding to resonance of the plate free-vibrating in vacuum is marked by K a for f = 1 and K b for f = 2.
Deformation patterns of the plate for α = 12° and f = 1.
The tail excursion (a) and thrust coefficient (b) of the plate for a range of pitching amplitudes and bending stiffnesses. (c) The thrust coefficient re-plotted against the Strouhal number St defined using the tail excursion. The dashed line in (c) represents the boundary between Region I and Region II.
The power coefficient C P (a) and power efficiency η (b) versus the Strouhal number. The rigid-wing cases have been marked with dashed lines in (b).
The wake structure for α = 12°, f = 1, and (a) K = 0.1 (St = 0.15), (b) K = 0.5 (St = 0.28), and (c) K = 2.5 (St = 0.47).
Wake structures of the rigid plate at α = 14° (a)–(c) and the flexible plate at K = 0.5 and α = 24° (d)–(f). In both cases, f = 1 and St = 0.48. The 3D view, side view, and top view are shown.
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