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Biomimetic flow control based on morphological features of living creaturesa)
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10.1063/1.4772063
/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/12/10.1063/1.4772063
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/12/10.1063/1.4772063

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Examples of biomimetic flow controls: (a) sketch of flying machine by Leonardo da Vinci (Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan); (b) Mercedes-Benz bionic car (photograph courtesy of Daimler AG).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Alula and its aerodynamic characteristics: (a) alula on the bird wing; (b) lift-to-drag ratio with the angle of attack () at Re = 2.6 × 10 (left) and 9.5 × 10 (right) (○, without alula; •, with alula); (c) flow visualization in the wake behind a magpie wing with (left) and without (right) alula at = 25° and Re = 2.6 × 10.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Leading-edge serrations and tubercles: (a) combed serrations on the leading edge of the owl feather (photograph courtesy of A. Sieradzki); (b) picture of the pantograph (Shinkansen 500 series) with vortex generators mimicking owl's serrations (photograph Shinkansen courtesy of Kanazawa Yuzi); (c) humpback whale () flipper - leading edge tubercles (photograph courtesy of William Rossiter).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Hindwing tails of the swallowtail butterfly: (a) planform shape of the swallowtail butterfly () in gliding flight; (b) variations of the lift ( ), drag ( ), and pitching moment ( ) coefficients with the angle of attack () at Re = 14 400 (•, with tails; ○, without tails; ▲, with tails; Δ, without tails; ■, with tails; □, without tails). Here, , , , and are the lift and drag forces, and pitching moment, respectively, is the density, and is the wing planform area. Reprinted with permission from H. Park, K. Bae, B. Lee, W.-P. Jeon, and H. Choi, Exp. Mech. , 1313 (2010). Copyright 2010 Society for Experimental Mechanics.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Trailing edge of a dragonfly wing: (a) magnified view (photograph courtesy of Antonia Kesel ); (b) spade-like protrusions on the trailing edge of an airfoil with a gurney flap. Reprinted with permission from W. Hage, AIAA Paper No. 2000-2315, 2000. Copyright 2000 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Aerodynamic effect of trailing-edge protrusions on a dragonfly wing in a hovering motion (Re = 1900): (a) rectangular protrusions on the trailing edge of a dragonfly forewing model; (b) definitions of the wing kinematic parameters and the force components on the wing; (c) temporal variations of the drag ( ) and lift ( ) force coefficients on the wing models with and without protrusions.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Secondary feather of a bird: (a) Skua wing in landing approach (photograph courtesy of Ingo Rechenberg); (b) real application to a glider plane. Reprinted with permission from M. Schatz, T. Knacke, F. Thiele, R. Meyer, W. Hage, and D. W. Bechert, AIAA Paper No. 2004-1243, 2004. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Corrugated surface of a dragonfly () wing: (a) photograph of cross sections of the forewing of a dragonfly; (b) streamlines near a corrugated wing at = 10° in gliding motion. Reprinted with permission from H. Hu, J. Aircraft , 2068 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Effect of surface corrugations on the aerodynamic forces in a dragonfly-like inclined hovering motion: (a) definitions of the wing kinematics and force components; (b) schematic diagrams of smooth and corrugated wing models, the width () and depth () of the corrugations are / = 0.15 and / = 0.045, where is the mean chord length of the wing; (c) temporal variations of the drag ( ), lift ( ), vertical ( ) ,and horizontal ( ) force coefficients of the smooth and corrugated wing models.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Hydrodynamic effect of surface grooves on a scallop shell: (a) swimming sequence of a real scallop recorded by cine camera; (b) scallop model considered in the present study () and the shape of surface grooves on its upper and lower surfaces; (c) variation of the lift-to-drag ratio (/) with ((red solid circle), with grooves; (blue open circle), without grooves). Figure 10(a) is reprinted with permission from B. Morton, J. Zool. London , 375 (1980). Copyright 1980 John Wiley and Sons.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Skin-friction variation of the V-grooved riblet surface with the tip-to-tip spacing ( ): •, Sagong (experiment, = 0.35 mm and = 0.4 mm at = θ/ = 4400–8300, where is the momentum thickness); ■, Sagong (simulation, = = 10); ▼, Sagong (simulation, = 17 and = 20); ○, Walsh ( = = 0.25 mm); □, Walsh ( = = 0.51 mm); ∇, Bechert ( = 2.63 mm and = 3.04 mm); Δ, Bechert ( = 5.28 mm and = 6.1 mm). Reprinted with permission from W. Sagong, C. Kim, S. Choi, W.-P. Jeon, and H. Choi, Phys. Fluids , 101510 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Shape and performance of sailfish skin: (a) skins of the sailfish; (b) schematic of the protrusions placed on a flat plate (parallel, staggered, and random distributions); (c) variations of skin friction with the width of protrusion (staggered distribution): ○, ( , /, /) = (7.3, 2, 2); Δ, (8.1, 2, 2); □, (9.8, 2, 2); Δ, (11.7, 2, 2); ◊, (12.5, 2, 2); •, (6.1, 4, 2); ■, (9.8, 4, 2); ▼, (11.7, 4, 2); ♦, (12.5, 4, 2). Reprinted with permission from W. Sagong, C. Kim, S. Choi, W.-P. Jeon, and H. Choi, Phys. Fluids , 101510 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) Experimental model of Saguaro cactus. (b) Variations of drag coefficient ( ) with the Reynolds number: Saguaro-cactus model (■, / = 0.07 and 24 grooves on the surface); smooth circular cylinder (•, Δ, ○, ).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Bursting and cruising speeds of fast sea animals.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/12/10.1063/1.4772063
2012-12-01
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Biomimetic flow control based on morphological features of living creatures<sup>a)</sup>
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/12/10.1063/1.4772063
10.1063/1.4772063
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