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Breakup and vaporization of droplets under locally supersonic conditions
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10.1063/1.4733459
/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/7/10.1063/1.4733459
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/7/10.1063/1.4733459

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Droplet breakup mode based on Weber number for non-volatile droplets (from Pilch and Erdman14).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic diagram of droplet injection and acceleration process using an under-expanded jet.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

2D supersonic wind tunnel configuration (dimensions in mm) and coordinate system.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Mono-disperse droplets at injection.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Static pressures along the tunnel centerline with vapor pressures of the test liquids shown for reference. The nominal back pressure was 16.7 kPa.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Direct imaging system layout schematic (top view of test section shown).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Measurement of droplet displacement via double-exposure imaging.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

LIF Imaging and optical layout. Photograph of setup (top) and schematic layout diagram (bottom).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Air flow Mach number as a function of z at different x-locations (b) Air flow Mach number as a function of z at different y-locations.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) Measured absolute (lab-fixed coordinates) droplet velocities and (b) relative Mach number in supersonic flow. The dashed lines correspond to the droplet dynamic model; the solid line in (b) represents the measured air Mach number.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Droplet breakup Regions I-IV for 2-propanol (left) and TGDE (right).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Variation in Weber number with downstream distance.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Droplet breakup time (t b ) for three test liquids. Each time difference is referenced to the observed beginning of droplet breakup in Region II.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

LIF images of undisrupted (top pair) and supersonically disrupted droplets (bottom pair). (Left) Acquired images; (right) processed images. The white contours, from outermost to innermost, correspond, respectively, to the reference vapor concentrations of 0.8 × 105, 1.6 × 105, and 2.6 × 105 mol/cc.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Representative LIF images: 2-propanol (left) and Hex-Pen 50/50 (right). The white contours, from outermost to innermost, correspond, respectively, to the reference vapor concentrations of 0.8 × 105, 1.6 × 105, and 2.6 × 105 mol/cc.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Vapor contour area for (a) 2-propanol and (b) Hex-Pen 50/50.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Droplet breakup regions for 2-propanol.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Droplet breakup regions for TGDE.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Representative LIF images: 2-propanol (left) and Hex-Pen 50/50 (right). The white contours, from outermost to innermost, correspond, respectively, to the reference vapor concentrations of 0.8 × 105, 1.6 × 105, and 2.6 × 105 mol/cc.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Representative LIF images: 2-propanol (left) and Hex-Pen 50/50 (right). The white contours, from outermost to innermost, correspond, respectively, to the reference vapor concentrations of 0.8 × 105, 1.6 × 105, and 2.6 × 105 mol/cc.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Test liquid properties (temperature: 294 K).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Breakup regions.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/7/10.1063/1.4733459
2012-07-20
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Breakup and vaporization of droplets under locally supersonic conditions
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/24/7/10.1063/1.4733459
10.1063/1.4733459
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