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Large eddy simulation of flow development and noise generation of free and swirling jets
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10.1063/1.4833215
/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/12/10.1063/1.4833215
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/12/10.1063/1.4833215

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The schematic figure of the computational domain, in which the physical domain is set to [0, 40 in axial direction and [0.0175,18] in radial direction ( is the radius of the jet). The shadow areas are buffer zones, and the inflow forcing is applied in inflow buffer zone.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Inflow profiles of (a) density; (b) axial velocity ( ); (c) radial velocity ( ); and (d) azimuthal velocity ( ). —– SJ0; −∇ − SJ1; and −□ − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The amplification rates for different azimuthal wavenumber: (a) SJ0; (b) SJ1; and (c) SJ2.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The instantaneous vortical structures shown by || and dilatation field in plane. The gray contour levels from light to dark are scaled by (0.001,10) for vorticity and (−0.001,0.001) for dilatation. (a) SJ0; (b) SJ1; and (c) SJ2.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The instantaneous three-dimensional vortical structures shown by -criterion with = 25( /)2: (a) SJ0; (b) SJ1; and (c) SJ2.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The decay of mean centerline velocity in axial direction. The axial coordinate is normalized by Witze correlation, 41 where is the end position of the potential core. ▶ DNS of Freund, 40 • Experiment of Tanna , 42 ■ Experiment of Bridges and Wernet, 43 and present computation: —— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) The half-width of jet and (b) the vorticity thickness along . —— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2, in which error bars are shown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The azimuthal velocity profiles of (a) SJ1; (b) SJ2; and (c) the maximum azimuthal velocity at different location. −△ − SJ1; −□ − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The power spectrum density (PSD) of pressure fluctuation on the nozzle lip line at (a) = 4.9 and (b) = 7.9 in the plane of θ = 0.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The fluctuations of (a) axial velocity and (b) radial velocity along the the centerline line. Experimental results of □ Ahuja , 45 △ Crow and Champagne, 46 ○ Zaman 47 (the experimental data have been shifted by −3.5 ), and present simulation: —— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The fluctuations of (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) along the nozzle lip line ( = ). —— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Two-point axial correlations ( ) and one-dimensional axial energy spectra ( ) at = . (a) and (b) SJ0; (c) and (d) SJ1; and (e) and (f) SJ2. “—” / = 5; “−− −” / = 10; “−· −” / = 15; “· · ·” / = 20; and “−· · −” / = 25. The straight line has −5/3 slope.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) The comparison of OASPL between the free jet and experimental data. Experimental data of ■ Mollon-Chirstensen , 48 ▲ Lush, 49 and ▼ Stromberg; 11 ○ Computation of Bogey , 7 —— SJ0. (b) The OASPL of free and swirling jets: —— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

The noise spectra at a far-field distance of = 60 at different observation angles (ϕ). (a) 30° and (b) 90°. Experimental spectra of ◀ Tanna, 50 ○ Bogey ; 51 spectra of present simulation:—— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

The azimuthal correlations of far-field sound at different observation angle ϕ at a distance of = 60 to the nozzle exit. ▲ Experimental data of Maestrello; 52 present simulation: —— SJ0, −− − SJ1, and −· · − SJ2.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

The pressure profiles of varied pairs of azimuthal wavenumber and frequency on the cylindrical shell of = . (a) SJ0, = 0.66; (b) SJ1, = 0.66; (c) SJ2, = 0.64; (d) SJ0, = 0.33; (e) SJ1, = 0.33; and (f) SJ2, = 0.32.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

The pressure profiles of varied pairs of azimuthal wavenumber and frequency on the cylindrical surface of = 10 . (a) SJ0, = 0.66; (b) SJ1, = 0.66; (c) SJ2, = 0.64; (d) SJ0, = 0.33; (e) SJ1, = 0.33; (f) SJ2, and = 0.32. —– = 0; −− − = −1; −· − = 1; · · · = −2; −· · − = 2; ▲ = −3; and ■ = 3.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Root mean square of the filtered sound source by multiplying radius. (a) SJ0, 10 contours [0.05,0.55]; (b) SJ1, 10 contours [0.05,0.6]; and (c) SJ0, 10 contours [0.05,0.6].

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Space-time correlation of the sound source at the point of = 20 on the nozzle lip line ( = ) in SJ0 (a) and (b), SJ1 (c) and (d), and SJ2 (e) and (f). (a), (c), and (e) full sound source: 10 contours [0,0.9]; (b), (d), and (f) filtered sound source: 11 contours, [−0.1,0.9], solid lines present positive values, whereas negative values are represented by dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Intermittency factor γ along (a) the centerline and (b) the nozzle lip line. “—–” SJ0, “■” SJ1; and “▲” SJ2.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

The profiles of the noise source with a frequency of = 0.33 are displayed, while the amplitude is scaled by each own maximum. (a) SJ0; (b) SJ1; and (c) SJ2.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Conditions of computational cases are presented.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Some parameters of mean flow quantities, is the end of the potential core.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Variations of the location and peak RMS values of fluctuating velocities and the peak magnitudes of Reynolds shear stress.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/12/10.1063/1.4833215
2013-12-30
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Large eddy simulation of flow development and noise generation of free and swirling jets
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/12/10.1063/1.4833215
10.1063/1.4833215
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