Snapshots of the Impact of a non-volatile drop on a non-wetting solid surface, at velocities 1 (top row), 1.5 (middle row), and 2.0σ/τ (bottom row). Each plot depicts the mean interface of the drop at the time indicated in the upper right corner of the frame (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.1] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.2] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.3]doi: 10.1063/1.4790807.1.
Density contours for impacting drops on non-wetting surfaces. Each frame is an average over the 10τ interval preceding the time indicated in the upper right corner, in cylindrical coordinates relative to the impact axis. The initial density at the center of the drop is 0.86 mσ−3, the outer contour in each frame represents density 0.2, and the inner contours are spaced by 0.2. Top to bottom: impact velocities 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 σ/τ (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.4] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.5] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.6]doi: 10.1063/1.4790807.4.
Density contours for a drop impacting a completely wetting surface at impact velocity 1.0σ/τ. The format is identical to Fig. 2 .
Simultaneous top and side molecular views of an impacting tetramer drop at velocity 1.0σ/τ at the time indicated. Each molecule is displayed as the three (blue) bonds joining the atoms and the horizontal (green) band indicates the positions of solid atoms. Left: slightly after impact; right: during recoil (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.7]doi: 10.1063/1.4790807.7.
Simultaneous top and side molecular views of an impacting tetramer drop at velocity 2.0σ/τ. Each molecule is displayed as the three bonds joining the atoms. Left: during the splash phase; right: at the end of the simulation (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.8]doi: 10.1063/1.4790807.8.
Molecular views for comparison with Fig. 5 at 36τ. Left: tetramer drop at velocity 1.5σ/τ at time 48τ; right: tetramer drop at velocity 3.0σ/τ at time 24τ.
Molecular views of an impacting dimer drop at velocity 1.0 (left) and 2.0σ/τ (right), at the same times as for the tetramer drops in Figs. 4 and 5 (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.9] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4790807.10]doi: 10.1063/1.4790807.9.
Variation of the height of the center of mass of the fluid (liquid plus vapor) as a function of time. Initial velocity 1.0 (*), and 2.0σ/τ (×) on a non-wetting surface and velocity 1.0σ/τ (○) on a wetting surface.
Cylindrically averaged velocity field for a non-volatile drop impacting a surface at u 0 = 1.0σ/τ. Each arrow represents the velocity averaged over a 3σ × 3σ × 360° spatial bin and a 10τ time interval. The maximum velocity (longest arrow) in each frame is 0.94, 0.24, and 0.13σ/τ, respectively.
Contour plots of the cylindrically averaged temperature fields at time 40τ for tetramers impacting at two velocities, (Left) Impact velocity 1.0σ/τ. The low-temperature central region (marked “L”) has 0.8 < T < 1.0 while the two neighboring regions have 1.0 < T < 1.2, in units of ε/k B . (Right) Impact velocity 2.0σ/τ. Here, the central region has 1.0 < T < 1.2 and the contour lines are spaced by 0.2, so that the tip of the lamella has 2.0 < T < 2.2.
(a) p-V diagram for dimers; points (blue) are simulation results and the line (red) is a fit. (b) Density profile produced by an oscillating wall: ○, oscillating wall, ×, stationary wall.
Physical properties of the drops.
Measurements of the speed of sound at T = 0.8ε/k B . Method I is based on the definition and Method II involves the direct simulation of sound waves.
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