Typical domain representation of the microfluidic mixer geometry considering the 3D model: in dark gray we represent the domain Ω3D,s used for numerical simulations. The geometry's symmetry planes are highlighted and labeled.
Typical representation of the domain Ω2D,s and parameterization of the microfluidic mixer considered for the optimization process.
Mixing times of the 100 microfluidic mixers (called Scenarios), randomly generated during the 2D versus 3D comparison process and sorted considering the 2D mixing time, as computed when considering (a) the 2D model and (b) the 3D model.
Optimized mixer simulated with the 2D model: (a) shape of the optimized mixer with a superposed color plot of the denaturant concentration distribution and (b) the time evolution of the denaturant concentration of a particle in the symmetry streamline.
Comparison of the solutions obtained in the mixing region with the optimized mixer considering the 3D model (subfigures (a) and (c)) and the 2D model (subfigures (b) and (d)). (a) and (b) show denaturant concentration distributions while (c) and (d) plot velocity amplitude distributions in the symmetric plane z = 0 μm. For the 3D case, the figure also shows, in the inset detail views, the X-Z plane slices of the concentration and velocity amplitude distributions at the plane defined by y = 16.5 μm (represented with a horizontal black lines).
Sample results from the optimized mixer design as simulated with the 3D model. Isometric views of the shape of the optimized mixer are shown, considering the computational domain Ω3D,s defined in Sec. II A , with representation of (a) the concentration distribution, and (b) the velocity amplitude distribution.
Selected streamlines (gray lines) generated by considering the velocity field obtained with the 3D model in the plane z = 0 μm.
Mean, minimum, and maximum percent variation (%) of the mixing time, concentration distribution in the plane z = 0 μm and velocity field in the plane z = 0 μm obtained when considering the 100 microfluidic mixers randomly generated during the 2D-3D comparison experiments detailed in Sec. III B .
Values of the optimized microfluidic mixer parameters presented in Sec. IV C .
Mean, minimum, and maximum percent variation (%) in the mixing time obtained by considering the 3D model and by perturbing randomly all the parameters of ϕ o with a maximum amplitude of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of their initial value.
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