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Unchannelized dam-break flows: Effects of the lateral spreading on the flow dynamics
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10.1063/1.4799129
/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/4/10.1063/1.4799129
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/4/10.1063/1.4799129

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Unchannelized dam-break configuration: (a) granular column in the reservoir and (b) final deposit after release.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Velocity fields calculated in the central region of the flow (at y = y/2) and taking a time interval of Δt = 10 ms. The three sequences of images correspond to different situations of granular collapses in the unchannelized configuration: (a) as the initial aspect ratio is small (a = 0.5); (b) as the initial aspect ratio is moderate (a = 3); and (c) as the initial aspect ratio is high (a = 7.5). The time interval between each image corresponds to τ, selecting images from 0.5 τ to 3 τ when the motion is visible.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Inclination angle of the static/flowing interface (θ) normalized by the angle of repose of the material (θ) as a function of τ for different situations (a = 0.5-3-7.5 in both channelized and no-walled dam-break configurations).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Velocity fields calculated in a vertical section located at x ≃ 20 d and pointing the transverse motion of particles associated with the lateral spreading by taking a time interval of Δt = 10 ms. The three sequences of images correspond to different situations of granular collapses in the unchannelized configuration: (a) as the initial aspect ratio is small (a = 0.5); (b) as the initial aspect ratio is moderate (a = 3); and (c) as the initial aspect ratio is high (a = 7.5). The time interval between each image corresponds to τ, selecting images similarly from 0.5 τ to 3 τ.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Velocity fields calculated at the base of the flow (at z ∼ 1 d) and taking a time interval of Δt = 10 ms. The three sequences of images correspond to different situations of granular collapses in the no-walled configuration: (a) as the initial aspect ratio is small (a = 0.5); (b) as the initial aspect ratio is moderate (a = 3); and (c) as the initial aspect ratio is high (a = 7.5). The time interval between each image corresponds to τ, selecting images similarly from 0.5 τ to 3 τ.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Non-dimensionalized lateral velocity gradients: as a function of y/W for granular columns in different situations (a = 0.5-3-7.5 in both channelized and unchannelized dam-break configurations); (b) Non-dimensionalized velocity profiles: z/d as a function of for unchannelized dam-break flows. Profiles have been translated along the z axis to make their static/flowing interface coincide at the z origin. Experimental results of Lajeunesse in both channelized and axisymmetric collapses as well as numerical experiments of Girolami performed in narrow channels are reported into the dark and light gray zones.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Scaled runout distance (L − L)/L as a function of the initial aspect ratio (a) for no-walled dam-break flows. Experimental results of Lajeunesse performed in a narrow channel and axisymmetric configuration as well as numerical results of Girolami performed in a narrow channel are reported for comparison.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Scaled deposit thickness (H/L) as a function of the initial aspect ratio (a) for no-walled dam-break flows. Experimental results of Lajeunesse performed in a narrow channel and axisymmetric configuration as well as numerical results of Girolami performed in a narrow channel are reported for comparison.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Longitudinal and lateral frontal velocities measured during the spreading phase (2) of both channelized and unchannelized flows as a function of the initial aspect ratio; (b) Non-dimensional ratio of the lateral component over the longitudinal one (U/ U) as a function of the initial aspect ratio.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Non-dimensional ratio of potential energy averaged on the total duration of the collapse normalized by the initial potential energy available for the flow (Ep/Ep) as well as total kinetic energy averaged on the flow duration as a function of the time normalized by the characteristic time of gravity (t/τ) for channelized dam-break flows characterized by different initial aspect ratio (a = 0.5-3-7.5). Details of the potential energy conversion into longitudinal, lateral, and vertical component of the kinetic energy are given for the three different cases (a = 0.5-3-7.5).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Non-dimensional ratio of potential energy averaged on the total duration of the collapse normalized by the initial potential energy available for the flow (Ep/Ep) as well as total kinetic energy averaged on the flow duration as a function of the time normalized by the characteristic time of gravity (t/τ) for unchannelized dam-break flows characterized by different initial aspect ratio (a = 0.5-3-7.5). Details of the potential energy conversion into longitudinal, lateral, and vertical component of the kinetic energy are given for the three different cases (a = 0.5-3-7.5).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Aggradation velocities measured at different lateral positions (y/10–y/5– y/2.5–y/1.1) of a cross section and for different initial aspect ratio (a = 0.5-3-7.5) as a function of the longitudinal distance from the reservoir (x).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Summary of the input parameters used for the numerical experiments presented in this study.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Summary of the different scaling laws identified in Lajeunesse , in Girolami , and in this study.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/4/10.1063/1.4799129
2013-04-29
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Unchannelized dam-break flows: Effects of the lateral spreading on the flow dynamics
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/25/4/10.1063/1.4799129
10.1063/1.4799129
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