Simulation domain with boundary conditions: x = 0 is the outflow boundary; x = L is the inflow boundary; all the rest side boundaries are the free-slip walls. The drop is kept in the middle of the simulation domain and has a spherical shape at t = 0.
Simulation domain slice (z = 0). Inertial (stationary) reference frame (x-y); non-inertial (moving) reference frame ( - ).
The evolution of 2 mm drop rise velocity in time and terminal drop shape for different cases. ——Case 1 (TRT); ------case 2 (BGK).
Domain size influence. The evolution of 2.0 mm drop rise velocity in time for different simulation domain widths. The length of the domain is 14 ; –·–·– ; —— ; ------ .
Mesh resolution. Terminal drop velocity as a function of drop diameter in lattice units for 1.0 and 2.0 mm drops obtained.
Time evolution of terminal rise velocity of 2.0 mm drop calculated in two test cases: ——stationary reference frame; ------moving reference frame.
Streamlines with x-component of velocity for 2.0 mm drop in two cases: moving reference frame and stationary reference frame. The white curve represents the interface.
Drop rise velocity as a function of time for different drop diameters; (a) 1.0 mm drop in spherical regime and 1.5, 2.48 mm drops in deformed regime; (b) 2.6 and 2.8 mm drops refer to transition between deformed and oscillating droplets; (c) 3.0 mm drop; (d) 3.48 mm drop; (e) 3.8 mm drop; (f) 4.0 mm drop is the largest simulated drop in the present study.
Streamlines and drop shape for d = 3.48 mm (upper row) and d = 3.8 mm (bottom row) drops at different moments.
The n-butanol drop deformation of 4.0 mm diameter at different time steps.
Comparison of simulated Reynolds numbers Re as a function of Eötvös number Eo for Morton number Mo = 1.23 × 10−6 to the graphical correlation by Clift et al. 37
Simulated Reynolds number Re versus Weber number We plotted with drop shapes in steady-state.
Capillary number Ca versus Eötvös number Eo; (*) present simulations; ( ) the Ca number value plotted using the terminal velocity obtained with semi-empirical correlation proposed by Henschke. 14
Physical parameters of the n-butanol/water binary system. 4
Drop diameter d and corresponding Eötvös number Eo considered in the present simulations.
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