banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Physical setup showing the extent of the computational domain and the definition for the impingement angle, θ.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Comparison of the present simulations with experiments of Qu : Experimental images. : Computational images.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Simulation showing the impact of a cylindrical liquid column onto a quiescent pool in (a) and the respective computational predictions compared against the measurements and theoretical predictions (b).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Illustration of the control volume employed in the identification and volume calculation for air cavities corresponding to θ = 90° (a), 15° (b), and 10° (c) jets. Similar volumes are employed for θ = 12°, 25°, and 45°.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Size distribution of subsurface air content showing the increased entrained volume at shallower angles along with larger cavity sizes ( / ). The error bars reflect the statistical uncertainty associated with these values.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Air volume time histories within the observation volume (3 cm in the streamwise direction) for all impingement angles. Due to lower volumes for the steeper impingement cases, an inset figure is added.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Cavity formation at two subsequent times outlined by streamlines to visualize the stagnation point flow.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Distance traveled by the stagnation point (/ ). The speed of cavity progression is approximately equal to /2.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Deflection of the jet stream by the action of stagnation pressure. The redirected stream is shown schematically, superimposed on computational result corresponding to θ = 12°.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Angle of flow redirection as a function of / .

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

For shallow impacts the jet is strongly deflected by the waves on the pool (θ = 10°). As θ is increased, the disruption of jet becomes progressively weaker until an unbroken jet core penetrates the pool (θ = 45°, 90°).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Comparison of versus for each case shown in Table III .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Plunging jet cases corresponding to different impinging angles.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Description of 12° cases for assessing the scaling of cavity entrainment.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Table showing the scaling of cavity formation with .


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets