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Spinning out of control: Wall turbulence over rotating
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reduction in a turbulent channel flow generated by surface-mounted
rotating disc actuators is investigated numerically. The wall arrangement of the
discs has a complex and unexpected effect on the flow. For
low disc-tip velocities, the drag reduction scales linearly with the percentage of the
actuated area, whereas for higher disc-tip velocity, the drag reduction can be
larger than the prediction found through the linear scaling with the actuated area.
For medium disc-tip velocities, all the cases which display this additional
reduction exhibit stationary-wall regions between discs along the
streamwise direction. This effect is caused by the viscous boundary layer
which develops over the portions of stationary wall due to the radial flow
produced by the discs. For the highest disc-tip velocity, the drag reduction even
increases by halving the number of discs. The power spent to activate the discs is
instead independent of the disc arrangement and scales linearly with the actuated
area for all disc-tip velocities. The Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi identity and
visualizations are employed to provide further insight into the
dynamics of the streamwise-elongated structures appearing between discs. Sufficient
interaction between adjacent discs along the spanwise direction must occur for the
structures to be created at the disc side where the wall velocity is directed in the
opposite direction to the streamwise mean flow. Novel half-disc and annular
actuators are investigated to improve the disc-flow performance, resulting in a
maximum of 26% drag
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