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Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat
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10.1063/1.4864297
/content/aip/journal/pof2/26/2/10.1063/1.4864297
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/26/2/10.1063/1.4864297

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Image of Cynopterus brachyotis in flight. Reference markers are: anterior sternum (a), wrist (e), the tip of digits III (h) or wing tip, and V (n). Reprinted with permission from Riskin et al. , J. Theor. Biol.254, 604 (Year: 2008). Copyright 2008 Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Kinematics of a representative two-dimensional slice of a wing showing the downstroke and upstroke together with wing rotations (change in torsional angle) in a vertical stroke plane.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Left shows the marker points on the left wing clubbed according to areas of interest. (b) Right shows the corresponding numbering for these same points.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Triangulated surface mesh of the bat wing.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Schematic of IB surface (bat wing) with IB nodes and corresponding probes and virtual mesh for inner layer modeling. Not to scale.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Comparison of thrust coefficient predicted by IBM calculations with body-fitted grids for the case of a plunging airfoil.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Comparison of IBM results with body-fitted results for thin surface rectangular flapping wing at Re = 10 000 and advance ratio J = 0.5.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Grid spacing in x, y, and z directions.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Comparison of coefficient of lift for two different Reynolds numbers.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Time history of the native wing kinematics. Flow is in the positive x-direction. Flow arrow is only representative.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Projection of trajectories of wing tip point 27, wrist point 24 on leading edge, and tip of digit V point 31 on trailing edge in the vertical XY-plane viewed from wing root. The bat is flying right.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Projection of trajectories of wing tip point 27, wrist point 24 on leading edge, and tip of digit V point 31 on trailing edge in the horizontal XZ-plane viewed from top. The bat is flying right.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Variation of wing surface area over a flapping cycle.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Time history of coherent vortex formation around the bat wing. Bottom plot shows lift and thrust coefficient variation for a flapping cycle over normalized time. Iso-surface of coherent vorticity = 20.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Pressure contours in vertical z-plane at z = (25% of maximum span length). View is from wing tip side with wing root on the other side of the cutting plane. Flow is in positive x-direction.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Pressure contours in vertical z-plane at z = (37% of maximum span length). View is from wing tip side with wing root on the other side of the cutting plane. Flow is in positive x-direction.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Pressure contours in vertical z-plane at z = (50% of maximum span length). View is from wing tip side with wing root on the other side of the cutting plane. Flow is in positive x-direction.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Normalized power for the native kinematics.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Range of relevant flight parameters for bats.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Power requirements for the native kinematics.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Values of non-dimensional area for each of the cases.

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/content/aip/journal/pof2/26/2/10.1063/1.4864297
2014-02-18
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/pof2/26/2/10.1063/1.4864297
10.1063/1.4864297
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