Skip to main content

News about Scitation

In December 2016 Scitation will launch with a new design, enhanced navigation and a much improved user experience.

To ensure a smooth transition, from today, we are temporarily stopping new account registration and single article purchases. If you already have an account you can continue to use the site as normal.

For help or more information please visit our FAQs.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1.W. H. Munk, “Abyssal recipes,” Deep-Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr. 13, 707730 (1966).
2.W. H. Munk and C. Wunsch, “Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 45, 19772010 (1998).
3.C. Wunsch and R. Ferrari, “Vertical mixing, energy, and the general circulation of the oceans,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 36, 281314 (2004).
4.R. Ferrari and C. Wunsch, “Ocean circulation kinetic energy: Reservoirs, sources, and sinks,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 41, 253282 (2009).
5.K. L. Polzin, J. M. Toole, J. R. Ledwell, and R. W. Schmitt, “Spatial variability of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean,” Science 276, 9396 (1997).
6.N. S. Oakey and B. J. W. Greenan, “Mixing in a coastal environment: 2. A view from microstructure measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C10014, doi:10.1029/2003JC002193 (2004).
7.M. A. Sundermeyer, J. R. Ledwell, N. S. Oakey, and B. J. W. Greenan, “Stirring by small-scale vortices caused by patchy mixing,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 12451262 (2005).
8.G. D. Egbert and R. D. Ray, “Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data,” Nature 405, 775778 (2000).
9.J. Nilsson, “Energy flux from traveling hurricanes to the oceanic internal wave field,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 558573 (1995).;2
10.K. Dohan and R. E. Davis, “Mixing in the transition layer during two storm events,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 4266 (2011).
11.K. Dohan and B. R. Sutherland, “Internal waves generated from a turbulent mixed region,” Phys. Fluids 15, 488498 (2003).
12.K. Dohan and B. R. Sutherland, “Numerical and laboratory generation of internal waves from turbulence,” Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 40, 4356 (2005).
13.J. R. Munroe and B. R. Sutherland, “Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer,” Phys. Fluids 26, 096604 (2014).
14.V. S. Maderich, G. J. F. van Heijst, and A. Brandt, “Laboratory experiments on intrusive flows and internal waves in a pycnocline,” J. Fluid Mech. 432, 285311 (2001).
15.A. M. Holdsworth, S. Decamp, and B. R. Sutherland, “The axisymmetric collapse of a mixed patch and internal wave generation in uniformly stratified fluid,” Phys. Fluids 22, 106602 (2010).
16.W. R. Boos, J. R. Scott, and K. A. Emanuel, “Transient diapycnal mixing and the meridional overturning circulation,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34, 334341 (2003).¡0334:tdmatm¿;2
17.R. L. Sriver and M. Huber, “Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones,” Nature 447, 577580 (2007).
18.K. Emanuel, “Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1477114781, doi:10.1029/2000JD900641 (2001).
19.E. D’Asaro, P. Black, L. Centurioni, P. Harr, S. Jayne, I.-I. Lin, C. Lee, J. Morzel, R. Mrvaljevic, P. P. Niiler, L. Rainville, T. Sanford, and T. Y. Tang, “Typhoon-ocean interaction in the Western North Pacific: Part 1,” Oceanography 24, 2431 (2011).
20.L. L. Liu, W. Wang, and R. X. Huang, “The mechanical energy input to the ocean induced by tropical cyclones,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 38, 1253 (2008).
21.M. C. Gregg, “Finestructure and microstructure observations during the passage of a mild storm,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 6, 528555 (1976).;2
22.J. F. Price, “Upper ocean response to a hurricane,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 153175 (1981).¡0153:uortah¿;2
23.B. R. Sutherland, M. R. Flynn, and K. Dohan, “Internal wave excitation from a collapsing mixed region,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51, 28892904 (2004).
24.B. R. Sutherland, A. N. F. Chow, and T. P. Pittman, “The collapse of a mixed patch in stratified fluid,” Phys. Fluids 19, 116602 (2007).
25.J. R. Munroe, C. Voegeli, B. R. Sutherland, V. Birman, and E. H. Meiburg, “Intrusive gravity currents from finite-length locks in a uniformly stratified fluid,” J. Fluid Mech. 635, 245273 (2009).
26.B. D. Maurer, D. T. Bolster, and P. F. Linden, “Intrusive gravity currents between two stably stratified fluids,” J. Fluid Mech. 647, 5369 (2010).
27.A. M. Holdsworth and B. R. Sutherland, “Influence of lock aspect ratio upon the evolution of an axisymmetric intrusion,” J. Fluid Mech. 735, R3 (2013).
28.R. W. Griffiths, “Gravity currents in rotating systems,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 18, 5989 (1986).
29.M. Ungarish and H. E. Huppert, “The effects of rotation on axisymmetric gravity currents,” J. Fluid Mech. 362, 1751 (1998).
30.M. A. Hallworth, H. E. Huppert, and M. Ungarish, “Axisymmetric gravity currents in a rotating system: Experimental and numerical investigations,” J. Fluid Mech. 447, 129 (2001).
31.M. Ungarish and T. Zemach, “On axisymmetric rotating gravity currents: Two-layer shallow-water and numerical solutions,” J. Fluid Mech. 481, 3766 (2003).
32.A. M. Holdsworth, K. J. Barrett, and B. R. Sutherland, “Axisymmetric intrusions in two-layer and uniformly stratified environments with and without rotation,” Phys. Fluids 24, 036603 (2012).
33.M.-P. Lelong and M. A. Sundermeyer, “Geostrophic adjustment of an isolated diapycnal mixing event and its implications for small-scale lateral dispersion,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 23522367 (2005).
34.G. Oster, “Density gradients,” Sci. Am. 213, 70 (1965).
35.J.-B. Flor, M. Ungarish, and J. Bush, “Spin-up from rest in a stratified fluid: Boundary flows,” J. Fluid Mech. 472, 5182 (2002).
36.D. Bolster, A. Hang, and P. F. Linden, “The front speed of intrusions into a continuously stratified medium,” J. Fluid Mech. 594, 369377 (2008).
37.S. B. Dalziel, G. O. Hughes, and B. R. Sutherland, “Whole field density measurements,” Exp. Fluids 28, 322335 (2000).
38.B. R. Sutherland, M. R. Flynn, and K. Onu, “Schlieren visualisation and measurement of axisymmetric disturbances,” Nonlinear Processes Geophys. 10, 303309 (2003).
39.M. R. Flynn, K. Onu, and B. R. Sutherland, “Internal wave generation by a vertically oscillating sphere,” J. Fluid Mech. 494, 6593 (2003).
40.J. M. McMillan and B. R. Sutherland, “The lifecycle of axisymmetric internal solitary waves,” Nonlinear Processes Geophys. 17, 443453 (2010).
41.G. A. Stuart, M. A. Sundermeyer, and D. Hebert, “On the geostrophic adjustment of an isolated lens: Dependence on Burger number and initial geometry,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 725741 (2011).
42.R. Pinkel and S. Anderson, “Shear, strain, and Richardson number variations in the thermocline. Part I: Statistical description,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 264281 (1997).;2
43.C. Ladd and L. A. Thompson, “Formation mechanisms for North Pacific central and eastern subtropical mode waters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 868887 (2000).¡0868:FMFNPC¿2.0.CO;2
44.R. Ferrari and C. Wunsch, “The distribution of eddy kinetic and potential energies in the global ocean,” Tellus A 62, 92108 (2010).
45.R. W. Griffiths and P. F. Linden, “Laboratory experiments on fronts,” Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 19, 159187 (1982).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of Coriolis forces on the axisymmetric collapse of a uniform mixed region in uniformly stratified fluid. Laboratory experiments were performed on a rotating table in which a mixed patch contained initially in a hollow cylinder was released and so excited internal waves whose properties were analyzed using synthetic schlieren. Numerical simulations restricted to an axisymmetric geometry were run with the experimental parameters to confirm the accuracy of the code and the validity of the axisymmetric approximation. The simulations were then run in larger domains and with wide-ranging parameters exploring the dependence of wave generation upon rotation and the aspect ratio of the mixed patch. Internal waves are found to be generated from the circumference of a shallow aspect-ratio mixed patch, with the radial and vertical wavelengths scaling as the mixed-layer depth. In rotating fluid, the energy spectrum revealed that pairs of wavepackets were generated, one with near-inertial frequencies and one with frequencies near the buoyancy frequency. Energy transport due to the waves was most significant during the first 6 wave periods. However, for very low Rossby number Ro ∼ 0.1, internal wave generation continued over relatively longer times as a consequence of undulations of the geostrophically adjusting mixed patch.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd