Volume 27, Issue 3, March 2015
Index of content:
- Interfacial Flows
27(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913721View Description Hide Description
We report an experimental study on a new arrangement of flow focusing that uses a slit aperture. The slit can achieve similar flow chocking function as a classic circular aperture to established gas flow pressure drop. Fundamentally, the jetting mechanism and quantitative behavior of slit flow focusing are very similar to the classic flow focusing because of the singularity nature of the jet despite the drastically different aperture shapes. After re-scaling the jet shape, the axial coordinate with the hydraulic diameter of the slit, the experimental data follow closely with the universal jet profile derived in Gañán-Calvo, Ferrera, and Montanero [“Universal size and shape of viscous capillary jets: Application to gas-focused microjets,” J. Fluid Mech. 670, 427-438 (2011)] based on circular aperture. Practically, the slit configuration expands the possibility of manipulating the jets. The two thin plates that form the slit aperture can also be used as electrodes to apply electrohydrodynamic excitation to the jet for controlled jet breakup with narrower droplet size distribution. In addition, the modest throughput of a single flow focused jet can be increased by operating a linear array of jets focused and excited by the same slit.
- Laminar Flows
27(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913703View Description Hide Description
The present experimental work is concerned with the study of amplitude dependent acoustic response of an isothermal coaxial swirling jet. The excitation amplitude is increased in five distinct steps at the burner’s Helmholtz resonator mode (i.e., 100 Hz). Two flow states are compared, namely, sub-critical and super-critical vortex breakdown (VB) that occur before and after the critical conical sheet breakdown, respectively. The geometric swirl number is varied in the range 2.14-4.03. Under the influence of external pulsing, global response characteristics are studied based on the topological changes observed in time-averaged 2D flow field. These are obtained from high resolution 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) in the longitudinal-mid plane. PIV results also illustrate the changes in the normalized vortex core coordinates (rvcc /(rvcc )0 Hz, yvcc /(yvcc )0 Hz) of internal recirculation zone (IRZ). A strong forced response is observed at 100 Hz (excitation frequency) in the convectively unstable region which get amplified based on the magnitude of external forcing. The radial extent of this forced response region at a given excitation amplitude is represented by the acoustic response region (b). The topological placement of the responsive convectively unstable region is a function of both the intensity of imparted swirl (characterized by swirl number) and forcing amplitude. It is observed that for sub-critical VB mode, an increase in the excitation amplitude till a critical value shifts the vortex core centre (particularly, the vortex core moves downstream and radially outwards) leading to drastic fanning-out/widening of the IRZ. This is accompanied by ∼30% reduction in the recirculation velocity of the IRZ. It is also observed that b < R (R: radial distance from central axis to outer shear layer-OSL). At super-critical amplitudes, the sub-critical IRZ topology transits back (the vortex core retracts upstream and radially inwards) and finally undergoes a transverse shrinkage ( decreases by ∼20%) when b ≥ R. In contrast, the vortex core of super-critical breakdown mode consistently spreads radially outwards and is displaced further downstream. Finally, the IRZ fans-out at the threshold excitation amplitude. However, the acoustic response region b is still less than R. This is explained based on the characteristic geometric swirl number (SG ) of the flow regimes. The super-critical flow mode with higher SG (hence, higher radial pressure drop due to rotational effect which scales as ΔP ∼ ρu θ 2 and acts inwards towards the center line) compared to sub-critical state imposes a greater resistance to the radial outward spread of b. As a result, the acoustic energy supplied to the super-critical flow mode increases the degree of acoustic response at the pulsing frequency and energizes its harmonics (evident from power spectra). As a disturbance amplifier, the stronger convective instability mode within the flow structure of super-critical VB causes the topology to widen/fan-out severely at threshold excitation amplitude.
- Turbulent Flows
27(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913501View Description Hide Description
We consider the rotation of neutrally buoyant axisymmetric particles suspended in isotropic turbulence. Using laboratory experiments as well as numerical and analytical calculations, we explore how particle rotation depends upon particle shape. We find that shape strongly affects orientational trajectories, but that it has negligible effect on the variance of the particle angular velocity. Previous work has shown that shape significantly affects the variance of the tumbling rate of axisymmetric particles. It follows that shape affects the spinning rate in a way that is, on average, complementary to the shape-dependence of the tumbling rate. We confirm this relationship using direct numerical simulations, showing how tumbling rate and spinning rate variances show complementary trends for rod-shaped and disk-shaped particles. We also consider a random but non-turbulent flow. This allows us to explore which of the features observed for rotation in turbulent flow are due to the effects of particle alignment in vortex tubes.
A stochastic perturbation method to generate inflow turbulence in large-eddy simulation models: Application to neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layers27(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913572View Description Hide Description
Despite the variety of existing methods, efficient generation of turbulent inflow conditions for large-eddy simulation (LES) models remains a challenging and active research area. Herein, we extend our previous research on the cell perturbation method, which uses a novel stochastic approach based upon finite amplitude perturbations of the potential temperature field applied within a region near the inflow boundaries of the LES domain [Muñoz-Esparza et al., “Bridging the transition from mesoscale to microscale turbulence in numerical weather prediction models,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 153, 409–440 (2014)]. The objective was twofold: (i) to identify the governing parameters of the method and their optimum values and (ii) to generalize the results over a broad range of atmospheric large-scale forcing conditions, Ug = 5 − 25 m s−1, where Ug is the geostrophic wind. We identified the perturbation Eckert number, , to be the parameter governing the flow transition to turbulence in neutrally stratified boundary layers. Here, is the maximum perturbation amplitude applied, cp is the specific heat capacity at constant pressure, and ρ is the density. The optimal Eckert number was found for nonlinear perturbations allowed by Ec ≈ 0.16, which instigate formation of hairpin-like vortices that most rapidly transition to a developed turbulent state. Larger Ec numbers (linear small-amplitude perturbations) result in streaky structures requiring larger fetches to reach the quasi-equilibrium solution, while smaller Ec numbers lead to buoyancy dominated perturbations exhibiting difficulties for hairpin-like vortices to emerge. Cell perturbations with wavelengths within the inertial range of three-dimensional turbulence achieved identical quasi-equilibrium values of resolved turbulent kinetic energy, q, and Reynolds-shear stress, 〈w′u′〉. In contrast, large-scale perturbations acting at the production range exhibited reduced levels of 〈w′u′〉, due to the formation of coherent streamwise structures, while q was maintained, requiring larger fetches for the turbulent solution to stabilize. Additionally, the cell perturbation method was compared to a synthetic turbulence generator. The proposed stochastic approach provided at least the same efficiency in developing realistic turbulence, while accelerating the formation of large-scales associated with production of turbulent kinetic energy. Also, it is computationally inexpensive and does not require any turbulent information.
27(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913573View Description Hide Description
We investigate the structures generated by the vortex shedding mechanism in turbulent axisymmetric wakes of non-axisymmetric plates, including a square plate and a series of fractal plates, and compare the results to a disk. For a given characteristic length ℓ, all plates have the same frontal area A, since ℓ = A 0.5, but the length of the perimeter and the irregularity of the perimeter were varied in a fractal manner thus allowing us to investigate the effect of boundary conditions. Measurements were taken over a large range of downstream and radial distances in order to obtain a more robust measure for the vortex shedding energy. It was found that the fractal plates are able to reduce the vortex shedding energy by as much as 60% compared to the disk and square plates. It was also found that the frequency at which the vortex shedding structures are generated and the manner in which they organise themselves in the wake are independent of the boundary conditions of the wake generator. The results suggest that the main function of the multi-scale segments around the perimeter of the plates is to re-distribute the energy to a broader range of scales in the flow, which could explain the previously observed increase in drag coefficient for the fractal edged plates.
27(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913695View Description Hide Description
In this study, large-eddy simulation is combined with a turbine model to investigate the influence of atmospheric thermal stability on wind-turbine wakes. The simulation results show that atmospheric stability has a significant effect on the spatial distribution of the mean velocity deficit and turbulence statistics in the wake region as well as the wake meandering characteristics downwind of the turbine. In particular, the enhanced turbulence level associated with positive buoyancy under the convective condition leads to a relatively larger flow entrainment and, thus, a faster wake recovery. For the particular cases considered in this study, the growth rate of the wake is about 2.4 times larger for the convective case than for the stable one. Consistent with this result, for a given distance downwind of the turbine, wake meandering is also stronger under the convective condition compared with the neutral and stable cases. It is also shown that, for all the stability cases, the growth rate of the wake and wake meandering in the vertical direction is smaller compared with the ones in the lateral direction. This is mainly related to the different turbulence levels of the incoming wind in the different directions, together with the anisotropy imposed by the presence of the ground. It is also found that the wake velocity deficit is well characterized by a modified version of a recently proposed analytical model that is based on mass and momentum conservation and the assumption of a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit. Specifically, using a two-dimensional elliptical (instead of axisymmetric) Gaussian distribution allows to account for the different lateral and vertical growth rates, particularly in the convective case, where the non-axisymmetry of the wake is stronger. Detailed analysis of the resolved turbulent kinetic energy budget in the wake reveals also that thermal stratification considerably affects the magnitude and spatial distribution of the turbulence production, dissipation, and transport terms.