Temporal positions and energies of femtosecond prepulses relative to the main pulse, which is at time 0 and with energy normalized to 1.
Spectra for PC1, PC2 (a), and PC3 (b). (c) MULTI-FS simulations of the spatial distributions of mass density and electron density . The foil is initially at positions 0–, and the laser is incident from left.
Measured electron energy spectra (solid lines) and exponential fits (dashed lines) with the indicated 's for PC1, PC2, and PC3.
Measured proton energy spectra. Solid triangles: PC1; open triangles: PC2. For PC3, no protons could be detected. The solid line shows ten times the detection limit. The inset is the proton cutoff energy as a function of transmission. The points are determined from the energy spectra, and the vertical bars indicate the energy range determined by step Mylar filters. The horizontal bars indicate the shot-to-shot fluctuations, and at the zero transmission the horizontal bar indicates detection sensitivity.
Left: side CR39 image (top) and the angular distribution of the higher-energy (0.31–) ions (bottom) for PC3. The vertical dashed line is the foil-target interface, corresponding to emission angle. The horizontal dashed line is the interface of Mylar filters. 0 means no filters and 1 means that a Mylar filter is covered on the CR39. Right: measured radial cutoff energy vs forward cutoff energy of protons for PC1, PC2, and PC3. The bars indicate the energy range determined by step Mylar filters. The dotted line corresponds to equal radial and forward cutoff energies.
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