(Color online). The angular distributions of the hot electrons (a) and protons (b) observed in the experiment. The laser focus intensity is about , and the main pulse duration is . The double-head arrows mark the polarization direction of the incident laser pulse.
(Color online). (a) Spatial distributions of hot-electron jets at The color bar indicates the electron momenta ; (b) a quiver plot displays the velocity vectors of electrons at their positions in the polarization plane; frames (c) and (d) show the components of the electric fields and . The electron density of the droplet increases from to exponentially with scale length near the droplet surface. The droplet diameter is . The incident laser is with a peak amplitude , waist radius of , and a duration of .
(Color online). The angular distributions of electrons at the time when the hot-electron jets are clearest for different plasma scale lengths: (a) , (b) , and (c) . Frame (d) shows the electron energy distributions for different scale lengths. The inset in (b) is the schematic diagram of the direction. The droplet diameter is . The incident laser is the same as given in Fig. 2.
Comparison of incident angles as a function of the scale lengths at the maximum absorption according to the theories given by Kruer (Ref. 17) and Ahedo and Sanmartin (Ref. 18) for the planar target, respectively, and our PIC simulations for the droplet target.
(Color online). Proton distributions in momentum space after the laser interaction with a droplet at (a) , (b) , and (c) for a microdroplet plasma with density scale length around the surface and laser parameters as given in Fig. 3(b). The corresponding energy distributions are given in frame (d).
(Color online). Spatial distributions of hot-electron jets at (a) and (b). The color bars show the electron longitudinal momentum which is truncated within or to make the figure clearer. The peak laser amplitude is . The other parameters are same as Fig. 3(b). Frame (c) shows the electron energy distributions for , 2, and 3 at .
(Color online). Spatial distributions of protons at (a) and proton energy distributions at different times. The simulation parameters are same as in Fig. 6 for .
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