Magnetic nozzle with a ideally conducting conical wall. The nozzle divergence angle is .
Perturbations in a super-Alfvénic flow propagate only downstream within a cone with angle . If the nozzle divergence angle is bigger than , then a perturbation created at the wall does not propagate inward.
Nozzle with curved magnetic field lines. At the nozzle entrance, the walls are straight and the field lines are parallel to the axis. The nozzle expands slowly and eventually becomes a conical nozzle with angle .
A moving slice of the plasma plume slows down due to the attraction force between the current in the slice and the wall current.
Characteristics in a highly super-Alfvénic flow. The characteristics originate at the axis and the characteristics originate at the wall . Quantities and are normalized to and , where is the total magnetic flux and is the location of the cutoff point [expression for is given by Eq. (58)].
Two-dimensional plasma density profile in a super-Alfvénic plume.
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