Simple representation of phase mixing and unmixing, using (a) and (d) , resulting in (f) .
Electron trap with CCD camera density diagnostic. The wall signal from sectored electrodes is used to measure the wave amplitudes.
(Color). CCD image of surface drift wave. Typical density and rotation frequency profiles are also shown.
Measured wall signal showing initial, second, and echo waves.
(Color). Experimental density perturbation images at six successive times. The initial wave is excited in (a) and the density perturbation executes spiral wind-up as the wave is spatially Landau damped. (d) shows the second wave excitation and the echo peaks in (f).
Echo appearance time vs the second wave launch time , both normalized to the wave period , using various mode numbers.
Measured peak echo wall signal vs the second wave launch time for two different second excitation voltages . The solid lines show fits from numerically integrating the collisional theory expression of Eq. (33). The dashed and dot-dashed lines have .
Echo data showing the measured vs actual electron-electron collision rate . The size of the data symbols represents the strength of the second wave perturbation.
The peak initial wave and echo wave wall signals, and , respectively, vs the initial wave excitation voltage . The solid line is the theory prediction .
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